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Scranton, PA 

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Scranton, PennBylvania 





Scranton, Pennsylvania 
January 30, 1914 

To The Representatives of the 
Charitable Agencies of Scranton: 


This Survey was made at the solicitation 
of a number of those interested in the charitable 
agencies of the cit;v. It was financed by the 
Directors of the Scranton Poor District, who, however, 
desired to assume no more important position than that 
of the other agencies. 

It was informally agreed, therefore, that 
the City Improvement Department of the Century Club 
should call together the representatives of the different 
charitable societies to whom this report might oe pre- 
sented. It will not be possible to go over more than 
certain parts of it, and I shall recoi:iiiiend that it be 
referred to a special committee for more full consideration 
and action. 

-^Respectfully submitted, 

tk. General Secretary, American Association 
of Societies for Organizing Charity 






o 3 l«l.8 










. Part 


cjf Part 



Scope of Investigation, Page 1. 

Chief Heed in Scranton, Page 3- 

Paiuily Care in Scranton, page 19 . 

necessary Developiiient of Fainily Care, Page 6l. 

Child-Caring, Page 7^. 

_ The Sick, Page 84. 

»■<. Part VII. Care of Non-Residents and the Homeless, Page 83. 

'^* Part VIII. The Attitude of tne Coiiimunity towards 
^^ Private Giving, Page 89. 

S Part IX. Institutions, Page 97. 

Part X. Procedure, Page 99 



The purposes of this investigation are 
of a strictly practical character. They have to 
do with an inunediate program. For that reason, 
the results as here presented do not indicate any 
academic completeness so far as detail may be in- 
volved. In other words, the report does not pre- 
sent a completed picture of all of the activities 
of all of the agencies in the city. 

On the other ha.nd, it presents an examina- 
tion of the r.iost important questions involved in the 
development of this side of the social wor^c in 

It considers: 

(1) The chief need in Scranton. 

(2) Outdoor poor relief of the Scranton 

Poor District. 

(3) Other outdoor relief. 

(4) The care of families in their homes. 

(a) What is done. 

(b) What is left undone. 

(c) Wiiat is required in the way of 
reorganization, co-ordination, and 
division of work, in order to con- 
structively worl-: v/itn faxiilies, with 
greater co-operation, aiidty, under- 
standing and efficiency. 

(5) The situation regarding child- caring. 

(6) Care of the sick. 

(7) Care of the homeless. 

(8) Special institutional problems with reference 

to families in their honies. 

(9) Certain data regarding expenditures, public 

and private . 

(10) Recoiiiraendations for the carrying out of the 

plans herein indicated. 

(11) Special report on institutional activities 

of the Scranton Poor District, to be 
later presented to the Board. 

P A R T II. 

The chief need in Scranton is an ap- 
preciation of what is lacking in the rehabilitation 
of families v/hicn have come to disaster. Because the 
situation has been so little sensed it is necessary to 
deal with it most emphatically and previously to a 
consideration of any other factors. 

In doing this we are not wrenching the form 
in which the Survey is presented, because the Survey 
itself has so plainly revealed tne fact that not v/ith 
neglected families themselves, nor v/ith societies and 
agencies lies the greatest fault, but vfith the 
community in general. 

It has been easy to perceive what a great 
many people have considered are the chief lacks. 
Indeed so commonly recognized are the evils resulting 
from the lack of a registration bureaii or confidential 
exchange for the use of agencies working in the homes 
with families, that it has not been necessary to prove 
our case in this direction. From every quarter there 
ha.s come the acknowledgment that relief hn.s been given 
without sufficient investigation, that there has 


"been duplication of relief, tnat there has been 
over-lapping of relief. It has been generally 
agreed that relief has been wasted in many cases. 
So it has beei that some have thought that the main 
purpose of a Survey like this would have to do with 
the practicability of a registration bureau or 
confidential exchange. 

Now while the matters mentioned in the 
previous paragraph do deserve attention and will be 
spoken of later, they do not include the chief need 
and one which overvirhelmingly exceeds the others in 
importance. It involves a new way of v/orking and a 
new set of purposes and ends. To begin with, questions 
of relief play but a minor part in this new way of 
v/orking. It ha.s to do with constructive working with 
families in wnich relief may or may not play its part. 
It means tne laying dowri of a definite plan in which 
a number of societies and individuals may each play 
their pa.rt, witii economy of effort for the actual 
and permanent improvement of the conditions of living 
of a faivdly so far as they can be improved. Though 
the word has a touch of coldness in it, yet it best 
describes the difference between your ol t and the pro- 
posed new method; I mean the v/ord organization." 

To borrow an analogy froi.i the business 
world, we may liken the organizer of family rehabil- 
itation to the organizer of a new business enterT:)rise. 
The success of such a i enterprise depends upon 


whether the business organizer "brings together under 
the right circwn stances, and witn proper co-ordination, 
the exact amounts and kinis of capital and labor, 
considering the latter to include all forms of labor 
froiu managerial to unskilled, required for economic 
and efficient production. In the saine way the 
organizer in the family rehabilitation field must bring- 
together under the right circumstances and with proper 
co-ordination, the exact amounts and kinds of service 
required in order to reduce to a minimum the handicaps 
under which a family is laboring. Relief is only 
one kind of service. 

Such planning is based upon a kind of 
investigation which is absolutely absent in this city. 
It is the kind of investigation whic-i is not intended to 
separate people into two classes, "worthy" and "unworthy," 
but is intended to discover underlying difficulties in 
order to intelligently deal with them. It regards a 
fai.'iily just as a physician regards an individual patient. 
There is no qxiestion of "worth" or "unworth" whenever a 
physician assuines responsibility. There can be none 
in this other field either. Such investigations go 
far beyond interviewing the members of a family group, 
and often involve many sources of information, including 
relatives, church connections, school teachers, old 
employers, landlords and agents, doctors and lawyers, etc. 


It ia not necessary for me to state that such sources of 
information are now used in this city, but I do most 
positively affirm that they are used in a more or less 
desultory way, and not in a manner vrhich brings the 
best constructive results. 

In the next stage there is even less evidence 
of a proper working out. This involves the joint 
planning of different societies and individuals in 
carrying out a coi^jxaonly agreed upon plan. How, of 
course, there is co-operation betv/een societies. But 
it largely takes the aspect of one society asking another 
to do a very definite and specific thing, Where this 
co-operation is most active, however, i s in the field 
outside tne homes of neglected families. I refer to the 
co-operation betv/een societies dealing with families in 
their homes, and the institutions which receive the thrown- 
out atoms of more or less broken up family groups. Outside 
of this field no real co-operation exists. There is no 
joint planning which is worthy of the naxxie. We shall in 
a later part of the report touch upon some evidences of the 
lack of even formal co-operation. But it cannot be too 
definitely affirmed that while there is a limited working 
together in a limited number of instances, there is 
nothint^ resembling the kind of co-ordinating effort which 
we have tried to describe. This by no means reflects upon 
the specialized efforts of a great many organizations. 


But the results of these specialized efforts are just as 
much minimized as would oe the case if one were to engage 
an able corps of experienced people to manage separately 
a nxffiioer of different departments in a business without 
any sort of co-ordination between the different departments. 

What we already said iiaplies what might 
be definitely stated in so many words. In the difficulties 
of a single family there may be required the services of 
half a dozen or a dozen different societies and persons. 
If in a city there is no one actually bringing together 
the different kin-is of service required, as indicated by 
careful independent investigations, and seeing that each 
agrees as to the part which he or his organization will 
take, there is, of course, not the slightest guaranty 
that families v/ill receive the proper kinds of attention 
and will be given anything like a fair show to recover 
themselves. So:!ie will, because of their own inherent 
strength. Others will by reason of a series of lucky 
accidents, - the rignt things, and all the right things 
being done. But s. more costly, inefficient and unjust 
situation cannot be imagined. Because such a syster;i or 
lack of system exists in this city of Scranton, is one 
reason, and one very irnportant reason, why the amount 
of public outdoor relief has increased so considerably 
in the last few years. We shall give later the 
percentages on this. There are other factors to be 

taken into account here, "but preeminent importance must be 
giveri to the fact that this growing industrial city is 
still laboring under a scheme of things which would with 
difficulty serve in a homogeneous city of 20,000. 

An Illustration. 

Let me give just one illustration from another 
city showing the efforts of the co-ordinating agency in 
that city in connection with one fnmily: 

"How a. crippled man became a shoemaker illustrates 
an agent's services and the organization of helpfulness. 

On the first day of December, I909, as this man 
walked alon^. the street upon his crutch, a gentleman, 
noting his crippled condition, stopped long enough to tell 
him to go to the Associated Charities. "The gentleman said 
they might help him" was as definite as he could make his 

A kindly interview brought out the facts that 
he was thirty years old, and had a wife and three small 
children. Until a year previous he had worked on a 
farm, vi'nen he lost his leg by an accidental gun shot 
wound. Coming into town, for he could no longer support 
his family in the country, the^ were all living in one 
small room, rented from the wife's sister, herself a poor 
dressmaker. The wife worked in a factory and was earning 
$4,50 a vreek. The husband took care of the children. 


"Wny couldn't your wife stay at home with the 
children, do sewing, and let you find sonie light work?" 
was asked. 

"She can't see to sew, and it makes her eyes 
hurt," was hi a reply. 

Let us set do^m the rest of the storj^ step by 
step, just as an agent of the Associated Charities brought 
it about: 

An oculist exaiained the wife's eyes. 

An optician gave her txie glasses. 

An institution supplied temporary employment 
to the man at which he proved his willingness to v.-ork. 

Relatives cared for the children while botii 
parents worked. 

A shoemaker agreed to take the man in his shop 
and teach him the trade. 

A Sunday-School class provided money equivalent 
to the wife's earnings so tnat she might care for the 
children while the man served his apprenticeship in the 
shoemaker's shop. 

A public hospital treated both husband and 
wife during temporary sickness. 

The same Sunday-School class guaranteed the 
cost of a shoe-maker's outfit for the man and paid 
rent while he was building up a business. 

Numbers of individuals were found to give 
him work. 


The result has been that this man paid for 
hin outfit and is now making three tines as much as 
his wife formerly earned. The oldest child is in 
school, and has done so well that he has been 
advanced in his grade. In short, a hovel has been 
made into a prosperous home." 

Local Tests . 

On so iiaportant a point we have not been 
willing to rest our case entii-ely upon a general 
statement, no matter how well founded, without definite, 
individual testing. The slightest investigation of the 
field is sufficient to reveal the absence of this co- 
operative planning and doing and even of the mechanism 
to bring it about. Conversations had with the 
individual workers were sufficient confirmation. 

Nevertheless, it seemed eminently desirable 
to try out the conditions in a limited number of fajnilies. 
So hurried special investigations were made which sufficient- 
ly revealed what had been done and what had been left un- 
done under present conditions. We cannot see that the 
selections made were in any way exceptional. We are 
obliged to believe that the situations revealed are in 
no way exceptional and are indicative of the dreadful 


costs to both family and community of the present un- 
organized conditions. In presenting the results of 
some of these special inquiries, we cannot, of course, 
tell the stories in any complete way because of the 
danger of identification. As the inquiries came to 
a head it became quite evident that whatever efforts 
we could make in our limited time to obtain specific 
services would not be sufficient to meet the many 
needs revealed. We have felt that the inquiries would 
not have been entirely justified unless the efforts were 
continued to deal with the problems involved. Realizing 
that the questions of reorganization which will be 
considered later would take some time, we have endeavored 
to suggest a bridging over of this gap oy the creation 
of a temporary committee, later mentioned, which shall 
as far as possible carry out the plans indicated. 



Inquiry of the various charitable societies 
in the city showed that this family was unknown to 
all save the Poor Board, wno were giving them $6. 
a month. The Board's records contained only the 
inforraation that this was an English widow with seven 
children, two of working age. 

A first visit to this fairly comfortable 
home revealed at once that here was a case which would 
need prolonged personal service. The ruother, a 
refined, intelligent woman, but one v/ho lacked all force ■ 
and initiative, seemed to have been unable to readjust 
herself since her husband's death. He had been sick 
a long time, so their savings had been exhausted some 
time prior to his deatn. A church was supplying coal, 
the mother taking in washing, the tv;o girls working, but 
the combined earnings of the three fell far short of 
supplying the necessary food to feed eight mouths, not 
to mention rent and clothes. They were making an unequal 
figh^, with the result that now the mother feared a break- 
down for tne oldest girl, and sne herself wasi't very 
well. i'o, she had no relatives who could help, nor 
would she be willing that they be asked, as they had not 
shown the proper sympathy or interest during the man's 
illneso, nor since his death- so v;hile the mother 
continues in this frar'ie of mind it seems un'>"ise to bring 
the relatives in. 


A medical examination was planned for the 
oldest child, and the .mother's lack of control was at 
once evidenced when she felt she coijld not insist when 
the girl refused to go. Proju various sources of in- 
fonnation caine stater.ients of the mother's false pride, 
of making pretensions whicn she could not possibly 
carry out and then coming in great distress to others 
to meet these obligations, of her ina.bility to cope 
with the responsibility of planning for her family, 
and of her general melancholy and depressed state of 
mind. All voted her a good but weak character. 

The church was giving moi-e than the woman 
had indicated, but evea with tnis added amount it was 
not enough to meet their needs. That here was a case 
which would need personal service, not added relief, 
was at once decided. Better paying, and positions 
which had promise for the future must be found for the 
girls. The mother must have a friend and adviser, 
one v/itn soiind practical judgment, viho would act as 
a guide, sympathetic but firm. Perhaps, too, her 
occupation should be changed to a -uore interesting one. 
She had been a milliner in her youth, why not arrange 
for training and make it possible for her to work 
in her home at this trade? In time a combined household 
might be arranged for, as tnere is a grandmother with 
grown sons and daughters, who at present feel they do 
not want to be bothered witn these children. 


An American widow viiin five children under nine 
appeared before the Poor Board some three years ago. 
The only infomiation on file there indicates that they 
granted her relief for a few months to tide her over 
until she could probably realize something on her 
property in which her interest amounted to $1500. 

This investigation made three years later, 
showed that the woman had not been living at the address 
given for the past two years, was still receiving the 
Poor Board allowance, as well as being helped soi.ewhat 
by a church society. She hp.d sold her property, clearing 
about |>900., of v,fhich she invested $700, at 5 per cent, 
and was marking a hard fight to live on this $35* yearly 
plus the #6. allowance monthly and what she could earn. 
And her occupation v,-as working on materials which v/ent 
towards the making of infants* dresses, in spite of the 
fact that botn she and two of the children had been 
declared tubercular and one child had actually been in 
a sanitarium. This sajae child also has a severe 
organic disease, aj-id is low assisting in this home work. 

The doctors vrere consulted; there seems to be 
a disagreement as to whether the i.;other and children 
really have tuberculosis, a.lthough they are all inclined 
to the belief that in the case of one child it has been 
arrested, probably. This r.other is trying hard to 
conceal the fact that she may have tuberculosis. Also 


of her investment and small incone, so until her entire 
confidence is gained, and she ca i oe approached on the 
subject of this money, it will he necessary to ignore it 
in a plan. Of course, what shape this plan should take 
hinges entirely on whether or not the mother and children 
are suffering froi.i this infectious disease. If they 
are, sanitarium care for the sick memhers, and other 
provision for the healthy children must be made. If the 
mother is not tuberculous, all effort will be made to 
provide a friend whose advice she v/ill accept in time 
on the proper way to use her small capital tc best 
advantage until the children are of working age, and 
who in the meantime will see that the family is ade- 
quately cared for. Perhaps, too, the occupation of 
the mother will hnve to be changed at any rate, as 
it does net seeii to agree with her. Continuous 
treatment for tne child witn the organic disorder will 
have to be provided. 

In the interim awaiting the doctors' decision, 
they having already been put in touch with each other, 
a temporary plan will be put into effect including a 
complete rest for the mother, of which she seems much 
in need, and sufficient good food for the entire 
family, the co-operation of the churcn society having 
already been promised in carrying it out. 


Various consul taticna v;ere held in this 
instance, which took us to the church interested, to the 
offices of two doctors and to a hospital, to a real estate 
office, and to the home of the family, as •'■'^ell as previous 
neighbors and the various general charitable societies in 
this city. 


A foreign widow whose husband had just committed 
suicide, leaving her with three small children and a nev 
"baby expected soon - this was the information on file at 
the Poor Board office, and also that they were giving her 
$6 monthly since the man's death. 

A meeting with the woman at the office brought 
out that she went to work alinost daily, locking in her 
four children, all unaer 6, and that one had fallen 
out of the window during her absence. No, she had no 
relatives, she said, no boarders, only friends who were 
no better off than herself. 

A call at the sparsely furnished, filthy, 
found the four healthy, happy, out ohi so dirty babies 
alone. The inother returned at noon. A room containing 
much men's wearing apparel revealed a brother who was 
living there, but wno she now claimed contributed nothing, 
and whoiii she feared. Calls on interested people brought 
forth the further information that there are three brothers, 
all working in this city, the single one living with the 
woman and apparently having made spasiaodic attempts at 
helping his sister in spite of her denial, another who h?.s 
a family and could possibly not assist with money, but 
whose wife could care for soue of tne children during 
necessary absences of the r.:other froia the home, and still 
another wo seems quite prosperous, ovns two houses nearby 
and earns a fair salary, in addition to keeping boarders. 


That the oldest boy must not be kept from school 
to care for the younger childre was at once iuipressed 
on this fariiily. The single brother was sent for, and 
an attempt made to interest him in a plan whereby he 
should contribute a stated aciount in return for board, 
and make it possible for his sister to remain in the 
home, caring for her children, taking in a small amount 
of work, and being taught the principles of cleanliness 
and homekeeping. The other brothers will have to be 
brought in on the financial side also as the pla,n 
develops. A nearby neighbor has been interested, who 
no doubt caa be utilized in supervising the homekeeping 
of the woman, while a man will take up the question of 
handling the three brothers and holdin;j; them up to their 

This is another case, where perhaps not added 
relief, but an unlimited amount of guidance and advice will 
be required, covering a period no doubt until the children 
have been started on their working careers at least. 

To get this picture of the family we had: 

(1) An interview with the i/iother in the office. 

(2) Called on the various charitable agencies in the city, 

to ascertain if they knew and were helping this fsimil; 

(3) A visit to the fajaily's ho-ne. 

(4) A call on the landlady. 

(5) Two calls on a nearby neighbor who is interested in 

church work and work with children. 

(6) A visit to the hospital. 

(7) A call on the brothers' employers. 

(8) An interview v/ith the brother at the office. 

(9) Another interview wit>i the mother at the office, 

(10) And another attempt has been made to hold a conference 
with the brothers, 


In this instance the Poor Board record contained 
the information that the man is sick, there are five children 
under working age, and relief has been given the fsunily one 
month, $6.00, this being a new case. 

Visits to various charitable societies and the 
dispensary proved they were unknowii to them. A visit to 
the home found the man suffering apparently with tuberculosis, 
a private doctor treating, and the family using up their 
savings in an attempt to save his life. They could speak 
no English, and a neighbor was called on to interpret. 
This neighbor's husband also has tuberculosis, so an attempt 
is being made to interest their priest in persuading the 
men to go to the tuberculosis dispensary for treatment, and 
a further plan will oe worked out as the necessary 
family history is obtained. 


The Poor Board record showed that this was the 
family of a deserter. The man h?/i disappeared two months 
previous to application and there were five children, one 
of working age. Relief was granted in July, then the 
next order was called for in September, and they were issued 
monthly to December inclusive. 

Our hurried investigation revealed that man had 
returned in Septeiuber, and the entire faniily excepting 
oldest child had left the city for the country, but we 
could not ascertain where. This child is now living in 
the city with a relative, and we have been unable to find out 
who has been drawing the monthly pension. 

To get this information we calledon the various 
general charitable agencies in the city, as well as: 

(1) At address given for family. 

(2) A neighbor. 

(3) The relative with who^a the girl lives. 


The Poor Board records in this case simply 
indicated that this Canadian family with seven children, 
two of working age, were receiving '^'J . monthly, as the 
father was sic>: with tuberculosis and going to West 

The hurried investigation revealed that the 
man had been in the sanitariuia a nximber of times, coming 
home at will, that the dispensary had long been interested, 
that they suspected the wife of having been infected but 
never succeeded in getting her to covie for an examination, 
that a church society had helped recently with clothes 
and food, that there were relatives who occasionally 
helped a little but not adequately nor systematically, 
though they did not prove adverse to a plan for systematic 
aid but were not open to the question at the moment as 
the woman had just ihlierited a few hundred dollars, they 
claimed. They believed this prosperity had again lured 
the man home as we found he had returned the week before 
in a worse condition than ever. He had always been 
selfish and they intimated that there had been drinking 
prior to and since his illness. Further we found that 
the two ol'lest are working in mills. 

Moral suasion will have to be used with the man 
to see that he returns to the sanitarian at oncej the 
wife has consented to a physical exajaination; 


if the story of the inheritance proves true, she will 
have to be gui ied in its expenditure, and "'hen exhausted 
proper plana made and carried out for further maintenance 
until the burden of support may safely oe left to the 
children- the man's being a hopeless case. The health 
of this family will have to be carefully guarded, and the 
relatives rallied at the proper time to help in carrying 
out the plan. Of course this will have to be greatly 
changed should the report of the doctor on the ...other's 
physical condition make it necessary. 

To get this information -"e visited: 

(1) At hone of the family. 

(2) At the various general societies in the city. 

(3) Twice at dispensary. 
(4J At the church. 

(5) Conferred with St. Vincent de Paul representative. 

(6) Called at the home of two relatives. 

(7) Notified a brother of man to call. 

(8) Consulted the school records as to ages of children, 

as well as birth registration. 



This is the f<ainily of an American widow with 
seven chil-iren, three over working a^e. She had been on 
the Poor Board record for a short time, but is no longer 
receiving aid. 

It is a story of a widow with a wayward daughter, 
who is now trying to live honestly according to the mother's 
statement, a grown son who hns gone off to another city 
and does not help in the support, another who is at home 
and contributing his share toward the family budget, and a 
brother who was hurt in the mines and claims to be unable to 
work since the accident, though a consultation with the 
physician at the hospital where he had been treated showed 
he could work if he wanted to. This mother has an ailment 
which requires an operation which it is expected would 
result in complete recovery. Arrangement has been made 
for her to go to the hospital, effort has been made to reach 
the brother and see that he is started at work which he can 
do, but as was expected he did not come to keep the appointment, 
Care for the children would have to be provided during the 
mother's absence, should we succeed in getting her consent 
tc the operation. 

In this instance we have had: 

(1) Two conferences witn the woman 

(2) Consultation with a society 

(3) Consultation with the hospital physician 

(4) And made an attempt to see the brother. 


The Poor Board record in this instance merely 
showed that there were eight children in this widow's family, 
one of whom would now be of working age, that one director 
was and is giving aid to the a:jiount of $6. monthly, that 
another had made out an order during the year but had then 
recalled it with tne statement that "Tnis woman lives with 
man C. C, wife, hold this order up," and also that during 
the latter part of the year she had been ordered to appear 
before the board on complaint of neighbors. 

Almost every agency in this city is interested 
in this faimily though there has been no working together. 
Indicative of this is the fact that while one agency is 
expending much i.ioney and ti:;ie on them, they do not 
apparently kno^Y of the woman's history of having lived 
with other laen even during her husband's lifetime and 
during his stays at sanitariurus, as well as at the present 
time. He was a tuberculosis patient who apparently has 
infected his wife, and soine of the children, during his 
periodic returns hoiie, where the greatest filth and squalor 
prevailed. The proper precautions to check the spread of 
the disease were also lacking. The oldest girl who is 
suspected of having tuberculosis, thougn no exeuaination has 
been made, has been working in a mill for quite a long 
time, though we find from the school records that she was 
born in April, l899 • The next oldest is home fro:.i school 
with a leave of absence, indefinite apparently, sc that 
she may nurse the mother and care for the family. So 
these children have been and are being sacrif±)ed. 


In this case we: 

(1) Obtained the iniornation fro::, three charitable 

agencies which have aided; 

(2) Prom two medical agencies which have been interested. 

(3) Fro-. a consultation of tne school records. 

It is particularly necessary to break up this 
family at the present moment, as the mother is now 
considering marrying again. She and the infected children 
should, of course, be sent to a sanitarium and provision 
made for the rest of the children. 


This is another fajnily on the Poor Board records 
as widow with six children who is receiving ^6. monthly. 

She has also been Kao^'/n to other agencies, who 
state that the oldest girl is working and the second oldest 
has a leave of absence froi.i school. The oldest girl had 
a similar leave of absence prior to going to work. 

Consultation of the records shows that this 
oldest girl is working illegally, not being 14 until next 
liarch, and the second oldest is apparently 12 years old. 

We here consulted with: 

A charitable agency 

The school records 

The birth registration. 

This investigation was only begun but is here 

used on account of the child-labor problecis already 



7/iiat Should be th e Qrganizin,^ Cen ter? 

^Tiat should be the Organizing Center? 

This brin^ us straight to the question of the 
proper functions of an Associated Charities. We wish to 
consider this question now entirely apart fro/a a considera- 
tion of the kinds of service now perforraed by the Associated 
Charities in this city. About its work we shall have a good 
deal to say later. We shall then have occasion to indicate 
how far it fulfils the responsibilities assuined by similar 
organizations in other cities. We shall then frankly 
comment upon the injustice of some of tne criticism leveled 
at it, and the justice of other criticism. But in order 
to properly estimate local needs, let us observe how those 
needs are met in other cities witn societies which hove 
been recently organized. 

(1) An entirely properly organized Associated Charities 
should have a conf i'lential exchange or registration b;ireau 
in which should be registered on cards just the names and 
addresses of faiailies known to the different organizations 
in the city, so tnat when more than one organization is 
interested they may each be notified. But it is indicative 
of the fact that this function is not the most important, 
that the greater number of societies today have not developed 
far along this line. Jiore attention is being given to this 
side of the work and oo society now organized or reorganized 
should pass it by. 


(2) An Associated Charities makes investigations 
of fanilies referred to it along the lines previously 

(3) I^^ doin^^- 30, it may irar.iediately develop a plan 
for co-operative treatment, bringing in the proper co- 
operation of societies or individuals by personal inter- 
view or the use of the telephone or correspondence. 

(4) But in a certain nuraber of the families wherein 
the problems are unusually difficult or where a difference 
of opinion exists, oetween say the Associated Ch<;rities' 
representative and the representative of a special agency, 
there is reference to a decisions coinraittee upon which are 
represented the different agencies and the chtirches which 
h?,ve a systematic ITamily vrp rl-c. Upon it also may serve 
experienced volunteers who are later described. This 
conunittee discusses the individual problems until a coinmon^^ 
agreement has been arrived at and there is a proper 
assu'iiption of responsibility by those who are to help in 
carrying out the plan. All matters which do not fall to 
the lot of other agencies, or to volunteer workers, must 
be carried out by the paid workers of the Associated 
Charities. It is needless to say that there is a vast 
mass of tasks which fall into this category. 


(5) In addition to iDringing into co-operation 
the representatives of other charitable agencies, it has 
always been the purpose of societies of this sort to 
increase rather than to decrease the aiiaount of personal 
and volunteer service on the part of individuals not 
charged with inimediate responsibility. The ups and 
downs of this side of the work are considerable. I 
believe that in tiiues past efforts have ^oeen made in 
this direction in Scranton, though at present there are 
comparatively few, if any, volunteers actually at work. 
It is essential, however, to proper success, to have 
the limited services of those engaged in other pursuits. 
Any syster;! which discourages this is a bad thing, no 
matter what degree of efficiency may be introduced in 
other directions. Othei*wise, any schetiie of family re- 
habilitation becomes of necessity somewhat official 
which is bad for the families and bad for the society. 
Furthermore, it seriously limits the work in two direc- 
tions. It limits the carrying out of plans to what may 
be accomplished oy any always limited paid staff of workers, 
In the second place it prevents the knowledge of actual 
living conditions extendiiig far beyond the knowledge of 
tnose who are giving their whole tiiue to the work. For 
instance, we have run across traces of a peculiar and 
special housing problem, of which there appears to be 


no general knowledge, in the couwiunity as a whole. We will 
apeak of this later 'but it is indicative of what we have 
generally felt during the whole Survey. That was that the 
knowled.-e of home conditions was largely, thoiogh not entirely, 
confined to the paid workers of the city in a manner not true 
of the extension of knowledge aa to other social conditions. 
The most energetic societies today are developing new 
methods of obtaining, holding and training volunteers. 
By tnat, I do not mean a great mo'o of people turned loose 
to do anything they will, out a group of anywhere frou ten 
to fifty persons in a city of this size, who are gaining 
in experience and who are carrying out definite parts of 
plans worked out "by the general secretary or the decisions 
coiTimittee before referred to. 

(6) \Wienever investigations of the real sort are made, 
an Associated Charities is constantly gathering information 
of the greatest value in connection with the necessary 
improvement of conditions. The kind of information thus 
gathered varies with the problems which exist in different 
cities. How in Scranton the uiost unique problem in 
connection with destitute families is as to how far 
these conditions may be traced back to industrial 
accidents. Yet it has been found impossible to obtain 
froiii the records of any organization in the city any 
reliable in format ion on this point. It should have 


been possible for ua to have been able to present the 
niimber of instances in which an industrial accident has 
led on to the necessity of a family applying for social 
service of various kinds. In the most modern system of 
records there are simple devices, used in connection with 
an alphabetical or street registration of families, 
wnich enable the registrar of the society to readily 
produce the record in which a given condition exists. 
The exact scheme of classification cannot, as before 
said, be laid do^m for any particular coiiuTiunity, but 
must grow as a result of tne observation of particular 
needs or evils which coifie to light in the extended 
record of faj:iilies which are the only ones worth the 
time and money invested in them. 

(7) An Associated Charities has the most intimate 
knowledge of hoiiie conditions because it is a center 
througn which tne knowledge of all agencies working 
witii families in their homes, flows. In addition, 
its records properly kept, furnish the accurate 
data for illustrations upon which iaipressions of 
general knowledge may be anchored in connection with 
many inportant steps forward. Sometimes it must 
lead in sucn movements and sometimes it must simply 
furnish information. Thus in the matter of indus- 
trial accidents, it would need only to furnish 


information to other societies leading in the fight 
for workingmen' s compensation. V.Tiere local action 
is necessary, it must often assume the leading role. 
It is a question whether it will not be obliged to 
later on initiate a movement looking towards housing 
regulations. One of the most obvious of apparent 
evils is the use of basement floors of what are 
really one-faiaily houses by a second faiaily. It will 
require the careful gathering of data for an extended 
period on the part of all of the agencies visiting 
families in their homes in order to deteniiine just 
the conditions surrounding basement habitations and 
what necessary restrictions should be put upon such 
uses. The preparing of a blank for use in the 
making of such observations should follow a conference 
in which those laost experienced should discuss what 
are the most obvious points to' be covered. We are 
using this only by way of illustration and shall 
mention it later in connection vrith other questions 
in v/hich the leadership of the Associated Charities 
is involved. 

(8) We have not discussed the internal organization 
of such a society because we are not '...ealiiig with that 
side. But in order to correct a conimon error, it 
should be stated that the work facing an Associated 


Charities is so important that its "board of directors 
must be selected on account of individual strength and 
interest. Tne associated effort coiues through the use 
of a confidential exchange, the conferences "between the 
general secretary and assistants, and the representatives 
of other organizations, the organization and deliberation 
of one or iiiore decisions coiimiittees and comhined effort 
through the Associated Charities' office in undertaking 
specific reforms. 



Let us no"v consider the factors in Fainily 
care as they reveal themselves at the present time. 
¥e reserve for a later part a consideration of the 
care of the sick. 

Expenditures for Relief 

We herewith present a taole showing outdoor 
relief expenditures for the general agencies of the city. 

Scranton Poor District 1913 134,414.23 

Associated Charities and 

Humane Society 19 11 2,037.35# 

Salvation Army Sstii:iated '^,000.00 

Hebrew Charitaole 

Societies Partial 2,400.00 

St. Vincent de Paul 

Society Approximate 3.296.21 

#!Iiiis includes certain office expenditures, such as 
fuel, light, telephone, stationery, but neither rent 
or sal^.ry. 


So far as churches are concerned, we have partial 
returns froni Protestant Churches indicating expenditures 
of about §3000. The relief work of the Catholic Churches 
is largely embraced in the returns of the St. Vincent de 
Paul Society. 

Nvimbers of J'amilies Known to Different 

We here give not the number of individual 

families known to all organizations after duplications have 

been eliminated, but the aggregates of numoer of families 

known to the individual agencies. Partial comparisons 

have been made betweea a few organizations but no extensive 

comparison could be made because of the fact that in most 

instances the records were either kept in poor shape or 

there were no records at all. 

Scranton Poor Board 1913 64-8 families 

(This is p-irtially estim-'ted, there being no complete 

Associated Charities Oct. 1, I912 

Sept. 30, 1913 1433 .Vajailies 

(This excludes 273 cases of transients and out-of- 
town people) 

Salvation Army Sstimated 50 Families 

Hebrew Charitable 

Societies Estimated At least pO "families 

St. Vincent de Paul 

Society Partial 137 Fai'ailies 


Societies Giving Other 
Service in Homes 

Visiting Nurses' Asso. 1913 1295 Patients 
(Of tnis number, at least 1^4 were pay patients, 
the inco.;.e being furnished by an ins\irance company) 
Scranton Day Nursery 1913 73 Children 


Partial List of Churches 

(Lioat of these fi^iures are 
estiras.ted on ordinary nmn"ber 
of fajfiiilies Knovra to cnurch 

Church lltimber 1 

Church Numcer 2 
Hiss ion of Saiae 

Church ITumber 3 

Church ITumher 4 

Church Ijurnlier 5 

Church ITumber 6 

Church ITumber 7 

Church number 8 

Church Eurnber 9 

Church ITumber 10 

Church ITvmiber 11 

Probably 75 Persons 

7 or 8 Families 
35 or 40 " 

Perhaps 20 Persons 

50 Fariiilies 

74 Families 

6 Families 

20 Families 

12 Families 

20 Families 

30 Families 

38 Families 

On the ba.sis of the foregoing, and v/ith the 
elimination of duplicated names, the number of individual 
fajuilies kno^Ti to the different agencies does net probably 
exceed two thousand. 



First q.uestion: program - 

The chief need - ffuinlly rehab il it e.t ion - involving new ways of working 

set of purposes ancl enclso 
Where is the fault. 

W hat is l acking. 

Chief fault with the co.:r-'unlty . 

Minor needs- 

Kegistration hureau. 

Confidential exchange for varying agencies. 

Proper investigation. 


The new way: 


1. Constructive working with families- relief may or 

fraay not play a part. 

2» Definite planning in \,'hat a nuraher of societies or 

(agencies play a part. 

3. Econoiay of effort - toward permanent improvement. 

4. Analogous to the organizer of a new business 

I enterpris e. 
(The family brings together right circumstances, 
proper co-ordination, exact amounts and kinds 
of service to reduce hardships. ) 

5. Discovers underlying difficulties in the individual 

family, -no question- of "worthy" or "unv/orthy". 

69 Seeks accurate information from relatives, ^ 


employers-old & new 

7. Proper v/orking out of the problem . 

1st. Joint planning of different societies and 
individuals in t common scheme or program. 

(Present agencies co-operate in dealing with 
fc-milies and throv/n out atoms. 

• x^y 



OL'J tBT' 

<.■ .ij*j J .- 3 

( ( T*- - r 

u ; ■ 


^ork of the Scranton Poor Board 

Our attention was early called by members of 

the Board of Directors of the Scranton Poor District to 

the fact that there have been heavy increases in the 

expenditures for public outdoor relief in the last twelve 

years. Vith the assistance of the United States Census 

Bureau in giving us yearly estimates of the probable 

increase of population in Scranton, it has been possible 

to make a comparison between increase in population and 

increaee in outdoor poor relief. 

Year Popu- Per Cent. Poor Board Per Cent 
la t ion Increase P.elief Increase 

1900 102.251 116,727.94- 

1905 116,939 14.30 17,541.36 4.90 

1910 130,436 11.54 22,727.72 29.99 

1913 138,621 6.30 34,414.23 47. 

During this period from 1900 to the close of 
1913 there has been an increase in population of 35 per 
cent;- and an increase in outdoor poor relief of IO5.80 
per cent. 

Table number 1, accompanying the original of 
this rei.ort, graphically snows this comparison. 

ITrom the records at ha.nd, it is impossible to 
make any deduction of value. There are no public 
records showing the list of beneficiaries prior to 
October, I91I. It is imjossible, therefore, to even 
trace the number of persons or farailies which have 
been receiving public aid over an extended period. 


The largest degree of commendation should go 
to the present Board and its efficient Secretary for 
having introduced a system in what v-a^s before a most 
badly tangled situation, but before complete efficiency 
can come, it will be necessary for a radical change 
of policy to be introduced in one direction. 

V/e will lead up to that by saying that not 
the slightest deductions of general value can be ob- 
tained from a reading of the records v^hian have been 
maintained since I9II. 

The items indicated by the record cards for 
families, cover Kaine, Address, Age, Place of Birth, 
How Long in Country, in State, in District, Rent, 
Present Income, Condition, Physical - Mental, 
Occupntion, Last Employed, Single, Married or Widowed, 
Children and Ages, Cause of Destitution, Each one of 
these items has only a. half line for entry. Even if 
all the items were always filled out, it would be 
necesBar;> to have far more data and information regarding 
the families before reaching inferences of the slightest 
valu.e with reference to social conditions. But even 
this very meager standard for data is not attained to. 
Out of 846 cards of the families receiving relief during 


1913. only 229 cards, or less than 20 per cent, of the 
whol e number, have even the residence given. A saiiiple of 
tne filling out is here given, the name being eliminated. 


Date 1/15/1913 

ITame, S. Mrs. Anna Age 24 

Residence. . . .No Entry 

Place of Birth ¥0 Entry. .. .Nationality. .Russian 

How Long in Countr;y? . .Ho Entry.. In State^.llo Entry .. In. .. . 

District?. . .¥.0 Entry 

House Rent Paid per Month. .!|6. . .Present Incone. .ITo Entry.. 

Con':3ition-Physical. .No Entry .. .Mental. .ITo Entry 

Occupation. .No Entr^- . . . , .Last Employed. . .'-o Entry 

Single, Married or Widowed Read or ^f'rite?.Fo Entr}?... 



14 months 

Cause of Destitution. .. .Husband Killed, 

In addition to the public records kept upon 
the cards as indicated, the Directors haTe private records 
kept in books. These records for the period before 
October 19II are not in the custody of the Poor Board. 
V.'e have been permitted to examine these priva.te records, 
and find that while they pretty generally give the 
residence, there is not much additional information. 

Erom these private records it is possible 
to indicate in a very rough way tne presence of 
certain factors or conditions in the fsjnily. But 
it must be remembered that in a majority of cases 
these simply appear upon the records as the statements 
of the applicants themselves. 

In 810 of the families given relief in 1913 
the following factors appear: 












Sick (Excluding 










Husband in jail 






Old age 



Feeble minded 






Husband won't work 



Permanent disability 






Large family 









810 100. 

This data comprises whatever there is of 
social significance upon the records as now kept. 
They furnish absolutely no bases upon which any comments 
whatever may be made upon the present situation and the 
increase in public oiitdoor relief. For instance, they 
furnish no data upon which may be presented a picture of 
the underlying factors behind widowhood. Furthermore, 
there is not the slightest doubt but that from one to 


three of these factors might appear in the same families. 
Here we have them listed one factor per fajnily. 

Methods of Application 

Of the 84-8 families who wei'e given outdoor 
relief in 1913i I85 applicants appeared tefore the 
Poor Board in regular session for a hearing. We wish 
to say a word later about this plan of public hearings, 
but v/ould draw attention at this point to the fact that 
the remainder of the 848 families were being carried along 
upon the booics on tJie basis of previous applications 
and without systematic review of present needs and con- 
ditions. We understand that in emergency circumstances 
a Director may act without reference to the Board, but 
the vrhole plan snows plainly that when once there is 
favoraole action, it is possible for a family to continue 
along receiving month by month tne amount first agreed 
upon. An examination of the monthly payments, while 
indicating some changes in amounts, and not without 
certain complete eliminations of particul^^r families, 
shows that they run along pretty uniformly. In one 
case we confirmed the fact that a grant originally 
made for three months only, has been continued along 
since August 19II. 


Before proceeding on to a consideration of the 
need for further systematization, wf wish to emphatically 
urge that the system of pulolic hearings is a disgrace 
to the city and should te ijiiinediately abolished. In 
doing this ?i'e wisn to call attention to the fact that 
the reason for the existence of this archaic systeni may 
be fairly Mvell traced. It is due to the fact that 
court decisions have indicated that the discretion of 
granting outdoor relief is one to "be exercised by the 
whole Board of Directors rather than by any one of its 
members acting alone. We shall later show how this 
interpretation may be lived up to without the personal 
and public appearance of applicants before a Board of 
seven men. Under such circujnstances it is impossible 
for either the Board or the a,pplicant to understand 
each other. It will interest the Board and this 
community to know that some of the most self-respecting 
of the women who have been visited have spoken of the 
torture which this method of application brought to them 
and the fact that they would not undergo it again, 
no matter v/hat v/ould happen to then. In the many cities 
which I have visited I cannot remember a sin^ile one in 
which this method is maintained either by a public or 
private agency. That is so far as the United States 
is concerned. I icnov/ of its existence in one Canadian 
city. This will indicate now archaic it is, and why 
it is on- of the worst blots upon existing charitable 
work in this city. 

. -27- 

Further Illustrations of the ITeed 
of Systematiz.s.tion 

There have been no others franker than the 
Directors of the Poor Board in indicating their dis- 
satisfaction witn present conditions. There has 
"been a general realization of the need of iraproveruent 
in certain directions. 

It has required but a slight scratching of 
the surface to discover illustrations of this need. 

In one case a widow with three children 
under fourteen received flOOO insurance at the time 
of her husband's death. Some of this \"ent for funeral 
debts, etc., but she at once applied for foor Board relief 
and received ^^ laonthly. Since then she has again 
married, and has been receiving relief regula-rly ever 
since the marriage. 

In another instance, there is a widovr who, accord- 
ing to the records of the Poor Board, has three children. 
Local information is to the effect that there are also 
two step-children of working age. One is a son who 
contributes nothing to the family budget, the other is a 
daughter who is at work. No effort had been ma,de to 
induce then to contribute to the family budget. 

In another case, thei^e is a young v/idow with 
two children under fourteen. She ovms her own hone, 
upon which there is an indebtedness of flOO or $200. 


She has received $5 fo^ atout six months. She made 
application about a month after tne death of her husband. 
There was living with her at the time a near relative, 
a man who was opposed to her asking for poor relief. 
It was also stated that she had a mortgage on another 
house for $1,000, and a small aiaovnt of money in the 
bank. She is a healthy, strong woman. 

Then v,?e have another deserting husband who 
has returned, with one daughter working and still 
the family is on the list. 

In another instance, there is a widow living 
with her son and his wife, who can easily support her, 
and there is no need for the order. 

There is one faraily in which there are two 
children, the husband doing very little work. This 
family should be dealt with in other ways. It is 
probable that no public relief should be extended. 


The Inherent Weaknesa 

Tile inherent weakness in the whole system, 
lies in the fact that the members of the Board, while 
giving only part tirae to the work and justly and legally 
"being required to do nothing more, are responsible for 
v/hat cannot possibly be accoiaplished under such a plan. 
We would add a word to the effect that one member does 
give full time in tne office of the Board. They have 
neither the tiiue nor opportunity to keep in constant 
touch witn all the families in tneir charge. Their 
local neighborhood knowledge would be of the greatest 
value in supplementing the results of systematic inves- 
tigation. That these are required and must be obtained 
is one of the absolute certainties of the situation. 

Limitations upon Gra nts 

The monthly amounts given to fajiiilies bear 
little relation whatever to the size of the families 
involved, or to the resources of these families. 
The amounts run from 13 "to $8. In one instance we 
have run across a case v.-here $10 has been given and 
there may be other instances, but they are unusual. 

Herewith we present s. table showing the 
monthly average grant for families of different sizes 
in records. 



ilumcer of : 
Children : 
Under 14 : 



! $4.00 

: 15.00 

i $6. 


: $7.00 

: $8.00 : 













































It is gratifying to note that as betv/een the 
%i5 ^-^d. !^6 groups there are increases in percentages 
in favor of ^6 as the number of children increases. 
But, of course, this is a very slight divergence between 
incoiaes when one considers the increased outgo which is 
indicated. It will be observed that the $5 s-i^'i $6 
groups compose about 74 per cent, of the total number 
of families indicated in tnio table. About 14 per cent. 
is found in the lower $3 ^"'^ $4 groups. 


Under the present scheme of things, it 
is necessary for the Poor Board to have certain 
understood limitations upon grants, even though 
the Board is not so limited by legal restrictions. 
If the practice had not grown up, it is certain 
that expenditures of this sort would have increased 
far iiiore than they have. Even with the best possible 
system, public relief boards are always heavily 
handicapped by the attitude of many families towards 
them. That is, there is a feeling that one has a 
right to demand relief because the money is raised 
by public taxation. Under a system which does not 
moHt minutely determine the exact size of the 
relief bur'len in each particul'^r instance, which does 
not definitely ascertain that all who should naturally 
help in the support of a family are doing so and 
are in occupations which fairly measure up to their 
earning capacity, which does not see that private 
agencies are interested when they should oe in 
carrying part of the burden, wnicn does not see that 
any bad tendencies in the health of the family are 
checked, which does not see that possible character 
deterioration is looked a.fter, it woxild be possible 
to make, in good faith, increasing grants from 
year to year without accomplishing more than is 
now accomplished. 


Traditionally, not only are the ajnounts of 
relief limited, but o the forru. Relief is given 
in the shape of grocery orders. In tliis artificial 
way, therefore, room is left for the activities of 
private agencies. The trouble is, however, that 
it in a perfectly artificial and illogical division 
and no one knows whether other relief needs are satisfied 
or not. 

Even under present conditions, I believe that 
more attention should be paid to greater variation in 
grants according to the sizes of the farailies. Of 
course, this would still be a mechanical operation and 
could not involve an accurate deteraiination of what the 
Board should grant in each case. But nothing re- 
sembling an accurate determination is now possible. 
All that it mav be said can be accomplished by seeing 
that the families with from four to eight children 
receive regularly more than those v^itn. from one to 
four children, is that in some instances needs would 
be a little more adequately met. 

At the same time let us re-emphasize the 
fact that it is easily possible for the Poor Board 
to have taken an attitude and followed a policy in 
tne past wnich would have dried up the streams of 
personal relief given in this city. ilo more 
disastroiis result can be imagined. The contact of 


private agencies and private individuals with the 
lives and homes of those who have fallen more or 
less out of rank is as necessary a.s tne existence of 
political parties. No matter hov/ good may be city, 
count}', state and national fi.diaini strations, there still 
remains the need of the existence of political parties, 
which must be independent of financial control. So 
it is in relief. No natter hoT»' good may be the 
administration of public poor relief, there is the 
need of the constant new and fresh observation of 
"hat is happening an'iong those who have fallen to 
the rear and what are the causes behind these 
happenings. No group of officials can stand alone 
in this most important field of all so far as 
community, life is concerned. It is because there 
has been too great a tendency in this direction in 
Scranton that the need of comprehensive constructive 
work with families has been so little sensed. 
Unrestricted and unobserving private benevolence 
is one of the greatest possible evils. But an 
even greater one v'ould be the turning over absolutely 
of the care of straggling families to a public board. 
Its effect upon individual and community life v^ould 
i-e harmful to a. degree wnich can be scarcely appreciated, 
¥.0 matter how elaborate may be other schemes for social 
betterment, nothing can take the place of this 


fundamental contact with fiondarnental family difficulties, 
It is not only a question of developing intelligent 
sympathy but of accurately knowing living conditions 
and the methods of dealing witn personal weaknesses and 
the social needs instead of dealing in generalizations 
which today are responsible for tremendous waste of 
both time a.nd money. 

Public Outdoor Relief in Other Cities 

I"or purposes of co;npariaon, we here present 
the figures of public outdoor relief in some cities 
near the si?.e of Scrainton. In the selection of 
these cities, we have tried to secure different 
types and it will be observed they are located 
in different parts of the country. It is needless 
to say in advance that such a co.iiparison in itself 
must not be given weignt as an indictment against 
the size of outdoor poor relief in the Cit;^' of 
Scranton. No one of the cities is similar to 
Scranton in it^ make-up, though soj::e are of an 
industrial character. Comparisons of this sort 
are only to be considered in connection with the 
presentation of other data indicating the need 
of better methods of work. Standing by themselves 
they have very little, if any, significance. 




Scran ton 

Bridgeport, Conn. 
Few Haven, Conn. 
AllDany, r. Y. 

Elizateth, II. J. 
MemphiB, Tenn. 



Public Outdoor Relief 





No Relief 
Tliere is an appro- 
priation of $3000 
made for Visiting 

Cost of Living 

In the consideration of the increases in 
public outdoor relief in Scranton from 19OO to 
1913. it must be borne in mind that doubtless 
during these years, the increased cost of living 
has had its effect in slowly increasing the 
ordinary grants. 

So, too, consideration must be given 
to the fact that increases in population have come 
largely through immigration which has more 
varied. There is, of course, no v/ay, however, 
of determining how far the records of nationalities 
have changed in connection with the activities of 
the Poor Board because of the lack of individual 
records before I9II. 


The Larger Reason 

Taking into consideration the wastes 
in relief made possible by lack of a completed and 
adequate system, I do not for one moment wish to 
indicate that that gives an explanation for increasing 
expendil.ui-es . To begin with, it is impossible at 
this time to indicate what would have been fair 
expenditures under the present condition of things 
in this city. For while we have indicated that 
it is ack owledged that relief has been wasted with 
some families, ^^^e have also sufficiently indicated 
that larger amounts shoiAld have been given to others. 
nothing short of from two to four years of continuous 
and complete family rehabilitation work will be 
sufficient to in'Ucate what should be and what might 
have been the proper share of responsibility for the 
Scranton Poor Board. 

V/hatever may be the eventual equalization, 
let it be remembered that the fault lies, and we 
again come back to the sar:ie theme, in the lack of 
proper coinprehension of what was required for family 
rehabilitation. 7/hatever excessive public expenditures 
may have been made could be today to the gradual 
accumulation of unsolved family problems which have 
been piling up with increased rapidity during the last 
decade or thirteen years. 


A great majoriti/ of families pull themselves 
out of the rut tut each year soiiie are sinking below the 
line, and each year sees an increase of those who are 
staying below the line. In the natural order of 
events, relief expenditures should keep on increasing 
and by their very increase should encourage even 
greater expenditures because no large and constructive 
plans lie behind. 

If it is possible to impress even upon a 
fe-^r the one idea that the first duty lies with the 
private citizens of Scranton in more actively 
developing the social efforts of the private agencies 
and particularly one, and does not and cannot lie 
with the Scranton Poor Board, there will be definite 
improvement by slow degrees. If tnis impression 
is not made, all else which is sugi;\ested in this 
report will be of no avail because the foundation 
will be lacking. 


No Honual Family Should Be in Hillslcle Home 

There is one matter practiced on the part 
of the Poor Board which may easily be changed at once. 
V/e refer to the practice of adiuitting normal families 
to Hillside Home and permitting them to stay there for 
indefinite periods. This hns been done in violrition 
of the statutes prohibiting the keeping of children in 
alriishouses for longer periods than sixty days. We do 
not here intend to enter into a discussion of Hillside 
Home because that will be taken up in a special report, 
but this particular matter is really connected with 
the outdoor poor relief work because here the solution 
can be found. At the present time, for instance, 
there is a widow with three children who has been in 
the almshouse since August of last year, a child having 
been born later. There is one other case resembling 
this in general details. According to present usage 
there is nothing to prevent the faxaily staying there 
for an indefinite period. In a third instance, the 
physical condition of the mother is involved and the 
mental condition of one of the children but it ia by 
no means definitely detenained whether the family 
shoiild not be re-established in a home of its ovm. 
We here reacn the crux of the whole matter. 


Hice and comfortable as are the general conditions at 
the Hillside Home, no one will gainsay that a 
public institution of this sort affords nothing 
nonnal to a faciily or that the children's contact 
with abnormal people can be anything but harmful 
tc the children. An attempt should be made in 
all instances of tnis sort to have a careful 
investigation made, to secure as far as possible 
the co-operation of other agencies and to re- 
establish the families in homes even if the tra- 
ditions regarding size of grants made by the 
Poor Board are broken under these special condi- 
tions. We are not here referring to temporary 
shelter. We realize the feeling which prompts the 
corranitment of all of the chil'iren so that they may 
remain v-it'ri the mother. We doubt whether this 
shoulo be done as often as it is done. But whatever 
may be said of this practice, there is nothing to 
be said in defense of the practice of permitting 
the families to lin£,er long after the immediate 
emergency has passed ^r/ithout any definite planning 
for the rehauilitaticn. As it stands now the 
period may be extended up to a time when the mother 
in desperation itiakes attempts of her own which may 
or may not be wise, looking towards re-establishment. 


Total Co3t of Public Ou t door Re lief 

Heretofoi'e ia speaking about public outdoor 
relief, '"'6 have bee^n dealing with the actual expenditures 
for relief and not the total cost. The figure which 
we have given for 1913. to wit, $34,^14.23, includes 
just thi-ee items, one of f464.60 for transportation 
furnished to non-residents, $1500 for the salaries of 
five outdoor physicians, and the remainder being paid 
out for provision orders. 

It is, of course, difficult to accurately 
divide adiainistrat io>n and office expenses of a 
Board in charge of a very large institution like 
Hillside Ho^'ae and also in charge of an outdoor 
relief system. Halving all expenses outside of 
the Hillside Home and charging one-half to outdoor 
relief expenses, gives aa ite.a of $7,777.63, or 
a total cost for outdoor relief of $42,191.86. 


Special Care and Appropriationa 

The following appropriations are made by the 

Directors to private societies in the city: 

Associated Charities and Humane 

Society ^500.00 

Day Nursery 500 • 00 

District Nurses' Association 900.00 :ipl,900.00 

For the per diem care of city charges 

in special institutions the follovring expenditures 

are made; 

Children in Homes |!1720.37 

Insane, State and Other 

Hospitals 29.90 

Feeble Minded and Training 

Schools 564.06 

Kiscellaneous 8^.00 2. ^97. ^^ 



The Associated Gnaritie s and Huinane Society 

The Constitution of the Associated Charities, 

adopted in l393. presents the following as its 


To secure the concurrent, harmonious 
action of the different charities of Scranton 
in order to raise the needy above the need of 
relief, prevent begging and imposition, and 
diminish pauperisia; to encourage woric, self- 
dependence and iadustry through friendly inter- 
course, advice and sympathy, and to aid the poor 
to help thejiiselves ; to prevent children from 
growing up as paupers; to aid in a diffusion 
of knovfledge on subjects connected with the 
relief of the poor, 


1. To provile that the case of every applicant 
for relief shall be thoroughly investigated. 

2. To place the results of such investigation 
at the disposal of tne Secretary of the Poor Board, 
of charitable societies and agencies, and of private 
persons of ioenevolence. 

3« To obtain employment, if possible; if not, 
to obtain, so far as necessary, suitable assistance 
for every deserving applicant from public authorities, 
charitable agencies or benevolent institutions, 

4. To make all relief, either oy alins or 
charitable work, conditional upon good conduct and 

5. To send to each poor fainily, under advice 
of proper autnorities, a friendly visitor. 

5. To hold public meetings and print papers 
for distribution. 

In 1905 the society was incorporated as "The 
Associated Charities and Hufiiane Society of Lackawanna 


In this charter it is stated: 

2nd. The purpose of this corporation 
is the manageiiient and direction of such of the 
public charities of the County of Lackawanna, 
State of Pennsylva-iia, as may be entrusted to 
it, together with general philanthropic and 
.moral work. 

With certain modifications the statement of 
purposes in the Constitution covers substantially 
the whole field of fanily rehabilitation. The 
more general stateruent in the charter is, of course, 
both indefinite and yet broad. It is significant, 
ho".".'ever, that the application for a charter was made 
at a tijfte when growing worx in this direction made 
it desirable for the Society to becone a corporation 
which might have the custody of children and which 
might become a quasi public agency in connection 
with work belonging to a Huinane Society. 

In an examination of the work it is revealed 
that no strict separation oC this Humane Society work 
from the ordinary work witn fainilies is made. 

The annual report for the year closing 
December S^st, 1.913. indicates that the following 
came to the attention of the Society. 


Harried Couples 






Deserted Wives 


Deserted Husbands 




Single Women 


Single Woaen with 




Single Men 





Of these 1706 we learn that IO32 made 
personal application and 486 were referred by 
individuals. There were 15 referred by attorneys 
and magistrates, 33 ^y 'the truancy department, and 
7 by the schools to other departiuents. Visiting 
Nurses referred 12, societies 27, institutions 42 
and churches 28. 

We find that temporary employment was 
secured in 68 instances and permanent employment in 
50. The figures given in the remainder of this 
paragraph are fro.i the annual report for I912, the 
figures not being completed for the fiscal year of 
1913. which has juat ended. They will be substantially 
the same for that year. We find that legal advioe 
and services were given in 261 instances, marriages 
were arranged for in 15 ■ that 199 persons were 
arrested, that 133 were taken to the Juvenile Court, 
that there were 267 children on probation and that 
transportation was arranged for through the Poor Board 
in 79 instances. There were I96 coimnitted to various 
institutions, exclusive of hospitals. 


With the exception of the employment figures 
which pertain to both si-ps of the work, the figures 
given in the last paragraph apply most particularly, 
though not entirely, to the Humane sile of the work. 
The data with reference to the straignt Jaraily side 
is not, 30 detailed. We are still referring to the 
report for I912. Here are so;;ie of the figures. 
Hedical aid was secured for 52. Nurses were secured 
for 61. There were I38 referred to churches and I68 
to the Poor Board. There is also a 3tate::ient regard- 
ing investigations which reads as follows: 

Found Worthy and Aided through 

Various Charities l664 

Found Unworthy or not in Heed 124 1788 

In connection with the Faiiiily work, it should also be 

added that 80 persons were referred to hospitals and 

that burials were secured through the Poor Directors 

in 7 instances. There were 39 lost children 

restored to parents, 26 were prevented from begging, 

there were 64 references to truant officers. 

Taking all of these figures in the large 

they are significant of the development of tne Society 

upon the Hmnane side. Beneath the surface there are 

other indications. Thus it is apparent that the 

large number of investigations referred to have 

centered arrjund questions of material relief only 

and there is nothing in the records to indicate 

but that they have been of a superficial character. 


Turning to the first paragraoh on page 45, we observe 
the quite limited nuriiber of references of persons to 
the Society by other Societies and by institutions, 
churches and the visiting nurses. Observe in the 
next paragraph that we deal in figures like 261, 
199 1 133 ill connection with law matters in addition 
to the 267 children on probation. So also the I96 
coriimitted to various institutions exclusive of 
hospitals. Compared to the ordinary figures of an 
Associated Charities which is not doing the legal 
Humane work, this figure is quite large. Coming to 
the next paragraph, the reference of I38 to churches 
and 168 to the Poor Board is not indicative of the 
working out of co-operative plans but a simple 
transfer of relief responsibility. Tuedical aid 
and the use of nurses are far below the ordinary mark. 

It has been impossible to gather useful 
data froai tne records of the. Society which are 
extre::iely meager and give us no basis to work upon. 
The staff of the Society has much information re- 
garding fainilies but it is in the heads of the 
individual workers. No more costly or uneconomic 
policy can exist tnan one wnich does not provide 
sufficient help for the proper keeping of records. 
Even the i.iost efficient and experienced worker, 
after years of experience, may oecojrie confused as 
to the exact significance and relative importance 
and corroborative foundation of the iiiipressions and 


facts or alleged facts regarding individual faailies 
which she may be treasuring in her raind. In the 
course of the special investigation referred to in 
Part II of this Report, we had one or two interesting 
illustrations of this possible confusion. The 
gravest injustices, here we are speaking generally, 
have been and are being done to feuuilies by reason 
of their changed condition's not being known to a 
particular worker and by reason of the ordinary 
mental processes by which a superficial impression 
of a family becoifies later on, an outstanding and 
prominent fact, without any corroboration whatever. 

The difficulties attendant upon the 
proper presentation or any sort of presentation 
of the work of an Associated Charities through 
figures of tnis sort are a constant and heavy 
problem with societies which have tne completest 
records. Therefore it would be idle to attach 
great significance to the figures of a society 
with an inadequate staff excepting as they may be 
confirraed by the general condition of the social 
work and the inferences which may be drawn from . 
other soxxrces. It is apparent that sohie of the 
most important agencies in the city are not co- 
operating in the planning for individual fajnilies. 
There is no decisions coiwaittee of the kind before 
indicated. The habit of working together is 


nowhere apparent. We have seen that thex-e is a certain 
arfiount of so-called referring of fsuiiilies, but limited 
as it is, it does not represent aiiy actual and careful 
co-operation in joint actioi. Nor need I say that the 
ter^vis "worthy" and "unworthy" in themselves indicate 
the lack of constructive planning. We have already 
emphasized this. 

^ere lies the fundan;ental difficulty? 
It lies in the fact that into the hands of one 
worker with souie assistants there have iDeen left 
the burdens which could not be possibly carried 
by anyone. All exterior evidences point to an 
appreciation of the special fornis of service to 
which the General Secretary of the Associated Charities 
and Humane Society has given of necessity particular 
and prolonged attention. The Probation and Hiimane 
work in themselves are more than enough to occupy 
the full ti:ue of an executive. It is necessary that 
this work should be conserved and it is equally necessary 
that there oe proper development by the Society in 
becominii,' the co-ordinating and co-operating center 
through which steady progress may be made in family 

V'e shall not at this point consider the 
working out of tnis problem but wish first to comment 
upon the work of the other agencies previously mentioned. 
Furthermore, the Poor Board and the Associated Charities 
problems must be considered together. 


The Jewish Charities 

The United Hebrew Charities is a combination 
of what was formerly the Immigrants' Aid Society and 
a work with homeless men. It has an annual expenditure 
of about |2000, 

On the Family relief side it claims to relieve 
such families as the Hebrew Ladies' Ail Society, later 
referred to, cannot handle on account of limited funds. 
In other words, if a family is going to require any 
considerable ajaoimt, they turn it over to this organiza- 
tion, which is a men's society. There are no records 
kerjt and they are on the point of adopting a system by 
which the few details regarding fa»aily history which 
they gather will oe put on check stubs and each administra- 
tion will carry off its own stubs. 

Out of a Jewish population of about 80OO, 
it is claimed by this organization that there are not 
over 50 families being aided by all the societies 

The Society furnished board and lodging in 
1913 to 270 transients at a cost of ^241. They 
paid for 4 funerals at a cost of $122. The svun of 
#165 was paid to traveling rabuie. On tne Family 
relief side, IO3 checks were issued aiaounting to i|835« 


While this shows a total expend! tui'e of only a little 
over •iJl300, we understand that through .special collec- 
tions for very special family emergencies involving 
large amount a, the amount of about $2000 is reached. 

On the Lnraijrant Aid side, they are advised 
"by Ellis Island, or rather by an i:xmiigrant society 
■ there, of all Jewish iiuitiigrants who have Scranton for 
a destination. They are looked up upon arrival and 
advised and helped as may be necessary. In a private 
way this snail group of men have arranged with certain 
wholesale dealers to send them such people as they 
think need their help to get started in business in a 
small way. Usually there are about 15 persons who 
have accounts with the wholesale dealers which are 
underwritten by this group. There is also a small 
loan society having a capital of about $1000. 
Losses are made up by dues of 25^2' a month collected 
from members and through collections. 

The Hebrew Ladies' Relief Association 
expended $400 in relief during 1913. helping 38 
families. Records are kept in a small notebook. 
The officers of tnis Society are extremely dis- 
satisfied with present conditions, 'claiming that they 
are imposed upon, and other Jewish societies and 
organizations are ijirposed upon because there is very 
little co-operation and very little understanding of 
the proper way to work with families. 


As we have proceeded further in this inquiry 
we have heard of other special organizations which 
we have been unable to follow. Also we are unable to 
report as to the exact aiuount of Faiaily care which may 
be done by societies connected witli synagogues. 

On the part at least of sorae of those 
interested there is a strongly expressed desire for a 
coiuprehensive federation wit a an officer giving full 
time to the woric. The question of a federation must, 
of course, be worked out by the Jewish coiauiunity itself. 
In the event that steps are taken in this directici, it 
may be possible to suggest a working arrangement with 
the Associated Charities which will be mutually beneficial. 

The need for federation is indicated with 
reference to the development of the ordinary work with 
families. It is quite evident from the above that the 
efforts along constructive lines, as indicated in the 
loan society, the helping of small .tradesmen to start 
in business, and the raising of large amounts of money 
for special purposes, are far ahead of siiuilar efforts 
in the city at large. 


St. Vincent de Paul Conferences 

The previous tables show that in 19 13 
at least $3»296.31 ^^^ collected foe relief yiirposes. 
This is an aoproxiraate amount for the reason that all 
of the conferences have not yet made their returns. 
The tables also sao'V that at least 137 famuli es were 

There are 55 '^^'^ on the roll of tne conferences 
and 1212 visits were made by them during the year. There 
were 14 situations secured and 99 ooys received special 
instructioa of soiue sort, 

For the information of those who have not had 
previous Knowledge of this society, it may be stated 
that in dealing with families the actions of the 
conferences and of individual members are marked by a 
great deal of practical sense and sound wisdom. It 
is an entirely voluntary organization, and yet as be- 
tween conferences here in the city it ha.3 maintained 
a scheme by whicn the crossing of lines in an 
accidental way by two or more conferences with particular 
faiailies has been obviated. It is strong in holding 
up to full responsibility the members of individual 
faiiiily groups. As will be observed from the above 
figures, it has developed two special lines of 
constructive woi-k, thougn on the employment siie, 
this appears to be soraewhat limited. It has always 


been our experience that whenever lines of larger 
co-operation have been actually developed the members 
of conferences are always prepared to do their part. 
The policy of tne society in other places has been 
generally against the plan of registering the families 
in a confidential bureau, but generally in favor of 
exchaaging information for mutual benefit with other 
societies interested, and in having representatives 
upon the decisions conmiittee previously referred to. 
We understand that their co-operation with the 
Associated Charities here has been close. 

A Woman's Auxiliary to this society takes 
no part in the visiting or in the decisions regarding 
the care of families but assists in raising money for 
the uses of tne society. 


Salvation Army 

The Salvation Arjny reports a total 
expenditure of about 15.000 for all departments of 
their work. There will oe later included the state- 
ment no^'!' beiiig prepared showing the aiaoiint used on 
the ?ainily side. The methods of the Army require 
weekly, quarterly and aanual reports made to 
National Headquarters, on relief work, in addition 
to the other activities. Relief has been given 
for various purposes and in different forms. There 
are, hov^ever, no individual records of families. There 
is evidently intim^^te knowledge of the conditions exist- 
ing in particular families and a recognition of the 
need of constructive work, but the absence of any 
plan for exchange of information plainly revealed in 
one case the need of correction of certain facts re- 
garding a family from the records of other societies 
or a satisfactory refutation of the records elsewhere 
found. The officers feel that under the present 
unorganized conditions they are required to carry 
heavier burdens on this side of the work than normally 
belong to them. They :ire evidently ready for a 
systematic co-operation. 


Volunteers of Ajaeric a 

This organization is no at deeply interested 
in the proposition for esta'olishing a Doarding-home 
for working girls, which is recognized as being 
a pressing need by other persons who have been in 
touch with girls who could not maice use of the boarding 
facilities of the Y. W. C. A. 

In connection with Family work they have reported 
to us that they have been in contact with 66 families 
and have found employment for 28 men. 


The Churches 

So far as the Protestant churches are con- 
cerned, it is not necessary to discuss their Fan-iily 
work in detail, We have previously presented some 
figures showing the ntmi'Der of families known to them 
and the general size of their relief fund. We have 
obtained froui the churches inf or-iat ion of value re- 
garding soi.'ie of the fainilies about which we inquired, 

TOiat it is important to consider is just 
what relations the church -^ork should bear to a more 
co-operative working alon.g the plans later indicated. 

If a church desires to, it may work through 
an Associated Charities to the extent of offering 
relief and service in their many co-ordinated plans, 
but witn the Associated Charities serving as the center. 
In other words, it may transfer responsibility there and 
do its part as it can in the plans worked out after 

Or it may simply transfer such responsibility 
in the case of any new families coming to its attention, 
or in the case of families not considered to strictly 
belong to the church congregation. 

Or it may, with or v/ithout transferring 
complete responsibility in the alternative just 
indicated, arrange to hold primary responsibility 
with its other fajnilies while working with the 


Associated Charities in harmony with whatever plans 
have been developed by the Associated Charities or 
other specific societies or individuals. 

So far as possible, churches should be 
induced to register families in a confidential exchange 
but this will always be far from complete. 

Churches which are doins any extensive Paiiiily 
work should be represented upon the decisions conanittee 
already spoken of. 

Churches whose work is restricted to occasional 
care in connection with a few faiiiilies may be brought 
into consultation when those particular families come 
up in connection witn the activities of other societies. 
These consultations may be between the church and general 
secretary of the Associated Charities or by a representative 
of tne church being inv^ited to a meeting of the decisions 
cOiMmittee at which the probleras of the particular fajnily 
are to be confidentially considered. 

In no one of the alterraatives above offered 
is it assumed that the cnurch will lose its contact with 
families and ho...e life, but that in some instances it 
will lose it where responsibility belongs elsewhere, and 
that in otner instances the contact will be more fruitful 
because based upon larger knowledge and upon more com- 
prehensive planning. 


Greater church co-operation, however, must 
depend upon an enlargement of the work of the Associated 

With such enlargement, the degree of co- 
operation between it and an individual church must be 
worked out in each individual case. What I mean to 
indicate is that no scheme of general church co-operation 
can be worked out and plastered down on the community. 
Any attempts in this direction are always met with 
increasing opposition and at the best very partial success. 
No church, however, can afford to assu-ne a position of 
aloofness and demand that it oe left alone in its own 
corner wit-i its own fai.iilies. In the first plp.ce it 
is impossible for it to accurately determine whicn are 
its cffn families if it does not know what others are 
doing. In the second place, no church worker, nor 
for that matter any otner single worker, ca'i attempt 
to do tne many different kinds of service required in 
individual families. For the sake of tne families 
themselves, it is necessary that it should be part 
of tne associative scheme of things and in the main 


Pennsylvania Association for the Blind 
Lackawanna Branch 

This association h s no relief work, but it 
will "De remembered that we are here dealing with "S'aniily 
care and tnat therefore it should oe considered under 
this part. The Branch h-as only been organized since 
Hovember, 191^. but it already has acco.aplished some 
interesting things. 

One of its main purposes is the industrial 
traininj; of the olind and their placement thereby in gainful 
occupatio'is. The Branch has given us a list of the blind 
persons known to it and what has been accomplished in 
this direction. 

These occupations appear: 

Typewriting 1 

Carpet-weaving 1 

Chair-caning 4 

Selling -Brooms 2 

Bead Work 2 

Piano Tuning 2 

Crocheting 2 

In each instance, only one occuoation per 
person is indicated, though training has often been 
along several lines. Altogether since the opening 
of the Kuloerry Street headquarters, this Brancn has 
been the means of placiag $1335«04 as wage earnings 
into the hands of 26 blind persons. The larger 


industry has, of course, been 'broom-making. In at least 
three instances, the Branch has "been the means of restoring 
or partially restoring eyesight through the aid of 

In a city 'mica has placed too much emphasis 
upon simple relief giving, there is amoral taught 
in this distinctly constructive work with this apparently 
less helpable group. It involves the :iost careful study 
of individual education, character and aptitude a.3 a basis 
for a deteri.'iination of the kind of occupation and training 
which is possible and x-^r^-cticable . The Branch is but 
in its earlivst infancy and final results cannot no'v be 
determined, but so far it has demonstrated that it should 
have the fullest support in carrying on the work which 
has been so well begun. 



Having in mind all that has been presented 
in Parts II and III with reference to the present 
status of Eanily care in this city, and what is 
required for the best efficiency in tha,t field, let us 
now consider the practical steps involved in the neces- 
sary development. 

The Under-Reach ing of the S.i_tuat ion 

In general terms it may be stated that V7hat 
is required is an under-reaching of the situation. 
The neglect of co-operative working in the past has 
made it absolutely inipossiole to gain any clear per- 
ception of just how big the problem is. In some 
instances, after considerable digging, vte have un- 
earthed a fair amount of information in the files and 
tiie brains of the social workers of the cit^, but there 
has been no joint sharing of this information nor joint 
working together on the basis of it. Eut in a great many 
instances, the information which may be obtained is either 
superficial or is based u_'on an ancient, not present, 
knowledge of the fariiily. This is sometimes worse than 
nc kno'^ledge at all. The special investigations ^e have 
made on our own accoujnt h«ve, of course, been extremely 
limited in numuer. This vork has amply demonstrated 
that there is a need for considerable development, 


"but it would be idle for us to "base any eetiruate on the 
size of the burdens to "be 'oorne "by individual agencies. 
For the next year or so there must "be an under-reaching 
of the situation, a careful, consistent digging do'/mwards 
which T"ill but slowly change ideas and methods of work 
as more is revealed and more is done. 

How thifi under-reaching does not have to be 
a special and out-of-the-crdinary process tut may "be 
simply the following out of ordinary lines of permanent 

The First Ste ps 

The first steps are a consideration of how 
the Associated Charities may be re-organized in such a 
way aB to separate from it all except the straight 
Family work and certain lines of children's -"^-ork: which 
will oe later indicated. This would mean that the work 
with waj^ward girls and other police cases should be com- 
bined under Ivlrs. Du^gan witn the Probation work of the 
Juvenile Court. There should be a separa.te secretary 
of the Associated Charities. It is extremely unf ortxinate 
that there should exist throughout the city a general 
impression that this society-' is most intimately and closely 
connected with these featuies of social work. The evidence 
is prettv clear in our minds, evidence coming from many 
quartern, that families are reluctant to go to the 
Associated Charities in connection with ordinary 


family troubles, oecause they, whether innocent or not, 
are afraid that their children may be ta.ken from theni. 
Of course, specific distrust of this sort is absurd. 
Of course, there sre faruilies who do go to the office 
in connection with ordinary difficulties, but the 
trouble is that even v/hen they do, it is iinpossible to 
guarantee that they will receive proper and coinprehensive 
attention because the pressure of these other activities 
in connection with people whose situations demand the 
promptest and the most strenuous action, crowds to the 
wall the continuous and prolonged attention which must be 
given to families in their homes after the first emergencies 
are met. The societ;> does look after first emergencies 
but cannot follow them up thereafter. 

Therefore, there can be no question but that 
tiie wisest step is to make such re-arrangement as v/ill 
separate the present kin'-js of work in which the society 
is most involved, and which in themselves require the 
constant attention of a trained executive, from the 
family rehabilitation work v/hich must be developed. 
In this way, not only do ve give opportunity for the 
proper development of this latter work, but we do away 
with the vital handicapping of it as it is now handi- 
capped by its too close connection with a necessarily 
important semi-official Humane work. 


I may say that the combination of the v/ork of a 
Humane Society vith an Associated Charities is a custom 
peculiar to Pennsylvania. A number of societies organized 
frorii ten to twenty years ago follow this plan. The 
societies which have been organized during the last five 
or six years have quite markedly departed from it. Here 
in Scranton I have had fir^it opportujiity to observe what 
may come oiit of such a connection. My strong opinion is 
that where there is a. large amount of Evxaane Society vork 
to do, it is most unv/ise to too closely connect the two 
kinds of work, even though they may run into each other. 

At the same time, I do not wish to suggest 
a, plan v/hich might imply that another new society was 
being added to those which might appeal for funds. My 
recoiTLniendation would be that steps be taken to separate 
the Associated Charities from the Humane Society but that 
the same Board of Directors, technically different, should 
serve for both societies, and that in connection with 
financia.l appeals they should alv,rays jointly appeal. 

Some other way out may appear tc be more 
practi'cacle after this report has been carefully analyzed 
by the coirmiittee to whicn it will be referred. That is, 
80 far as tnis particular method of separation is concerned. 
There can be no escape froj;. the need of a leader for the 
Paiiiily ^vork. 

-64- ■ 

Yrhat i3 Ijeeded in the yanily Work 

Let us now take up the question of what 
is now required for further development in the Family 
rehabilitation v/ork. 

In connection witn our discussion of "The 
Chief Eeed in Scranton," v/e have spoken of all of the 
factors required in connection with proper organization. 
V/e will no'v consider what development is required in 
order to bring,' up the local situation to the standa-rd 
indicated. We follow the nximhering given on page 12 
and succeeding pages. 

(l) The first requirement is a confidential 
exchange which has been universally demanded. As we 
have shown, it will not in itself effect very much, but 
in connection with co-operative Vvrorking, it will effect 
a good deal. Let it be understood that a confidential 
exchange does not require that detailed information aboiit 
fax:iilies be registered, but simply the fact that a 
particular agency or church is interested in them, so 
that others later interested may know this. The 
confidential exchange should be used by both societies 
dealing with families and by all kinds of institutions. 
It should also be used by hospitals so far as obtaining 
information is concerned in connection v/ith free patients. 
On tne other hand, it v-ould be impossible for the hospitals 
to register all the c^'ses of this sort coming to them for they 


would completely swamp the exchange or run up its 
expenses treraendoiiBly . Not less than $1000 for the 
first year would be required for such an exchange and the 
cost should be divided among the public and private 
agencies on the basis of the a/aount of service to each one. 
Proia what we have said, it may not be evident just how 
the exchange would serve institutions. It would serve 
them by giving them sources of information regarding 
persons seeking admission without the necessity of their 
making complete investigations themselves. All inmates 
should be registered, as this sometimes is of the greatest 
service to societies which may be working with other 
portions of the faxailies from which the inmates come. 

Because of tne general interest in this 
particulf^r thing, we have dwelt upon it at some length. 
But let it be understood that while it would be of some 
service, inaugurated and standing oy itself, it would 
soon become ineffective if efforts were not being made 
to organize co-operative planning and working behind it. 
In itself, it is a mere mechanical device, which becomes 
of the utmost value only when there in some personality 
watching to see that its services are properly used, and 
showing how they can ue used, in addition to being 
connected with a society which is constantly developing 
co-operation and a more careful working out of family 


(2) Investigations must "oe made much more extensive 
and must be properly and completely reported. Such 
investigations are frequently impossible with the size of 
the present staff and the work it is now doing, especially 
on the Humane side. It is throwing monei' away to have 
any time spent in investigation when the results of 
investigation are not properly recorded. The very primary 
reason why there is little which resembles planning 

in connection with the hundreds of families knoTim to the 
various societies, lies right here. There is far less 
systematic information on file than would be required 
by Dun or Eradstreet, for instance, in connection with 
a business house with a capital of a few thousand dollars. 
Even the simplest economic value involving the welfare of 
a family group may easily measure up to the economic value 
in proper knowledge of the credit which should be extended 
to a Dusiness house of the kind indicated. This h-s no 
reference, either, to the simple m«tter of juntice. If 
we are not going to do. our v/ork with decent thoroxighness, 
it hsd better not be done at all. Only eventually we will 
find that it v.-ill have to be done thoroughly because of 
the growing burdens. 

(3) and (4) There has, of course, been considerable 
co-operation developed through the Associated Charities, 

but there is a tremendous lot to be done. Of systematic 
working together along conmion plans by several agencies 


there is practically nothing. There is no decisions 
coDunittee at which the more difficult family problems 
are considered. With the strongly marked geographical 
divisions in the city, I believe it would be necessary 
to eventually organize three or more such conmittees. 
It is not necessary at this point to go into details 
of the plan which must be slowly v/orked cut after tHe 
reorga.nization of the society a.long the lines indicated. 

(5) The question of volunteer service is alv;ays a 
difficult one. I know that attempts have been made in 
the past to develop this side of the work. I know a,lso 
that many societies have had most discouraging experiences. 
I k -ow further that in later years there have been renewed 
attempts and that it's impossible for the jiiost work to 

be accomplished unless there are sowe volunteers who will 
carry out some details of the Pamily plans made, for there 
are always more details to be carried out than can be by 
a small group of paid workers. We have indicated on page 
14 the community values of volunteer service and the 
absolute need of it in order to awaken the community to the 
need of taking definite steps for the changing of intolerable 

(6) and (7) There is need of the systematization 
of the information gathered whicii may serve to throw 
light upon the specific points which Siiow bad social 
conditions in any direction, and also to afford 
illustrations of a concrete sort for the appeal to 


those who raay not have sensed the need. For instance, 
a conferehce should be arranged to "brintj together the 
field v/orkers of the societies to consider v/hat point 
should be covered on a card reporting the more obvious 
housing and sanitation defects found in the houses 
visited. These records should be turned in to the 
Associated Charities, conbined with similar records 
which their visitors would turn in, so that at a later 
date a special coiiimittee may consider what, if any, 
housing defects require the a-ttention of the municipality. 
As we have already pointed cut, thei-e is need of attention 
being given to the conditions surrounding the living in 
basements of families in houses where there has been 
sub-letting. The Associated Charities in the past 
has figured considerably on this side. I think, however, 
that tne plan of co-operative working in the systematization 
of infoirnation has not been very much developed. 

I should like to call attention to another 
question, in which I believe there should be united action 
on the part of the Associated Charities and other organiza- 
tions. In 1913 the Legislature of Pennsylvania passed a 
bill by which a ma-n sentenced for non-support might be 
imprisoned at hard laoor and that a per diem of 65^ 
be paid to his family. Owing to the fact that no hard 
labor is provided for the misdemeanants serving out 
sentences in this County, it has been impossible for 
this law to be carried out. Inasmuch as the 


imprisonment in idleness of any person is morally 

and economically a bad and wasteful process, this brings 

up the question, naturally, of whether any reasonable 

means for providing hard labor might be developed. 

A brief has been submitted to me, showing that by the 

Act of June 26, I895, P. L. 377, (Workhouses 4 Stewart's 

Purdon 5190) the County Commissioners after having first 

obtained approval of tv.'o consecutive Grand Juries and of the 

Court of Quarter Sessions, may establish a workhouse of 

which they shall have control, and may use any land 

suitable already held by the County, or purchase others. 

The other statutory references leading up 
tc this are: Act of 1705 1 Sm ^G, Act of 21 February I767, 
1 Sm 270. 2 Brightly Purd. 1479, Ed. I7OO-1872, Repealed 
or Amended Act of 3I, I860, P. L. 427, Section 79. 

An Act of L-ay 25, I907, P. L. 247, (5 Stewart's 
Purdon, 6142) provides that for the better employment of 
prisoners and the iuiprovement of highways, every able- 
bodied male prisoner in any jail or workhouse may be 
required to do and perform eight hours of manual labor 
each day except Sundays or holidays. 

Labor to be classified, fixed and established 
by the Prison Board under regulations approved by the 
Court of Quarter Sessions. Sheriff and County Coimnissioners 
constitute the Prison board. 


I v.'ould call attention to the deeiraoility 
of taking advantage of these statutes for the providing 
of hard laoor, not only for non-supporters and deserters, 
but for all short-teriii offenders. Public opinion is 
steadily pointing to^wards the need of employiiient of all 
persons under sentence, and the policy of paying a per 
dieci to the families of the prisoners. Pro;:, the com- 
paratively small ar.ioimt of data which we have been able 
to gather, it is apparent that Desertion and Non-Support 
figure very largely in the dependency of the city. 

Even in the limited number of investigations 
which were made, it became evident that with enlarged 
investigations and better kept records, many questions 
of school attendance and child labor will come to the 
surface. These are going to require careful handling 
with reference to individual violations, while at the 
saiJie time, the infonuation thus gained should be at 
the services of the CG:.ibined movement for better 
legislation and administration. 


Poor Board 

I would recojiiiiend that the Poor Board at the 
sarue time engage one visitor to work under the super- 
vision of tne reorganized Associated Charities, or engage 
the Associated Charities itself tc hire a worker for 
the purpose, to begin an iiiimediate exaiaination of the 
families now receiving public relief. This should 
not be with reference to any irnj-nediate action of the 
Board, but a taking up of the farailies, one by one, 
and at the sanie time utilizing all the information 
being gathered by the Associated Charities. There 
should be a first set of investigations having to do 
with the elimination of people v.'ho obviously should not 
now be receiving relief. When this is accomplished, 
each section of the city should be visited, and in 
connection wit/i the other work of the Associated Charities, 
an attempt should be made to gradually recommend to the 
Poor Board such adjustments of grants as may appear to 
be desirable in the light of the facts, the co-operation 
of other individuals and societies, and the permanent 
plans which may be under consideration. This process 
v/ill take at least tv.'o years. At the end of that time, 
it will be possible to form idea of v/hat might be 
considered reasonable appropriations for public outdoor 

-72- . 

During the process of this plan of investi- 
gation, I do not belieTe that the present system of 
having applicants appear "before the Board in open 
session should be continued. V-Oienever there is not 
information at hand, obtained in the manner just 
indicated, a statement of conditions of families 
and recor/imendations should be made by the individual 
director in the district in v/hicn the applicant lives, 
to be presented by him to the Board for approval without 
any personal appearance of the applicant. 

With the accuruula-tion of information, it 
will be necessar;y for the Poor Board to maintain a 
more elaborate system of records, whicn should be 
essentially in the same forru as that which may be 
developed by the reorganized Associated Charities. 
This means following the best business customs 
in the use of the vertical filing syntem, and a 
record card containing much more data than appear 
on any set of cards in the city, as well as the 
chronological record of investigations, consultations 
and what has been acco;:iplished. 


The Ends to "be Attained 

The ends to be attained are: 
(l) Equalization and readjustment in the outdoor 
relief of the Poor Board, with the understanding that 
it may later safely renove its present limitations 
upon form of relief and size of grants. It may safely 
give money for other things than food. It cannot, however, 
consider any radical changes in this direction until prob- 
ably at least two years have expired during which the ex- 
amination of the field has been made. 

(2) Reorganization on the private side through the 
Associated Charities, which will mean that the work of co- 
ordination, investigation, co-operation and treatment will 
rest primarily witn the privately supported agencies. 
It will also sen'^e to more efficiently supplement relief 
given by the Poor Board, which under any circumstances 
whatever must have limitations. We question whether 
there has not been too great a concentratio*"' of relief- 
giving through the Poor Board. We are entirely convinced 
of the disastrous results of a greater concentration. It 
is not necessarj' to argue this fact, however. We all 
know that despite whatever theories we may hold, people 
will insist upon individual participation in relief- 
giving, and the only thing to do is to open up sensible 
ways in v/hich they may be of assistance. This 


paragraph, however, is not primarily concerned with the 
relief-giving, but with the work of co-ordination, etc. 
This, in essence, is something which must oe done by 
private agencies. It must involve voluntary association 
with no public aspect. It is necessary for it to be done 
by a priva.te agency for no other reason, or no further 
reason, than that private citizens as such must be in 
iriimediate contact with the home conditions of the neglected, 
and be prepared to fight the injustices v;hich may be 




In the proposed reorganization of the Associated 
Chs.rities, I v;ould recoanend that a children's coi.Jidttee 
be created upon v/hich shoiild be representatives of the 
institutions in the city dealing with children, as v;ell as 
the representatives of other organizations, and the Associated 
Charities itself. I would propose that this eoimriittee make 
it a special care to develop a co-operative working in the 
coKUiiunity probleius v/hicri may arise in connection with 
children. It should have contact with the Pennsylva.nia 
Child Labor Coriumittee, the Pennsylvania Children's Aid 
Society and such other State org3,ni zations as may be 
interested in this field. 


One of the first problems which should be con- 
sidered by this committee is the question of the better 
systematization of the child-placing work done in this 
city. The conditioas may be thus summarized. 

The Associated Charities and Humane Society 

placed out 19 children in 191^'. The degree of possible 

supervision is indicated by these factsj 

Neither foster parent nor child seen 

during last eight months or year 4 

Poster parent seen cut not child 

during this period 5 

Children came to office or were met in 

some other accidental way 8 

Child adopted by own uncle 1 

Child seen about six months ago 1 

-76- ^ 

Of this nuQljer only 5 ^^'^ been legally adopted 
v/ith accoinpanying transfer of responsibility. The pnpers 
in 3 other cases are just being ma^le out. The Poor 
Board some years ago used to indenture without previous 
probation period, so far as foster parents were concerned. 
This was little short of a crime, but has been practically 
abandoned. Only 2 children have been indentured during 
tne last 3 years. 

The House of the Good Shepherd also places out 
children but we have no data as to number. There is no 
adequate after-supervision. 

From St. Patrick's Orphan Asyluri 23 were placed 
in family homes during 1913* 

St. Joseph's Foundling Home and Maternity 
Hospital placed out 13 children during the year. We were 
told that the horaes were visited by members of the church 

The Home for the Friendless placed out 15, 
members of the board visiting the homes previous to 
placing out and afterwards. 

The proper placing out of children i s so 
delicate a matter, and is becoming so large an industry 
here, that I urge its careful study by the committee 
before named in consultation with the officers of the 
State Chillren's Society. I am not, you will observe, 
offering any scheme, but simply urging that to my mind 


the tiiae has come for the agencies engaged in this work 
to sit oovm together, observe what they are doing here 
and what is "being worked out in other Pennsylvania 
Counties. Because there have been misunderstandings 
between the Pennsylvania Children's Aid Society and 
certain societies here, I am the more insistent that 
the General Secretary of that societj' should be called 
into consultation here. 

I am not aa expert in the children's field, but 
it does not require an expert to observe that the standards 
of child-placing are at many points below the rjormal which 
will guarantee the safeguarding of the interest of the 
children placed. The gravest dangers appear in connection 
with the laxity (not extending to all cases, however) of 
the after-supervision, though it has not become evident 
that the previous inspection of homes has always been 
complete. Here, as in many other directions, we have 

been hampered by the absence of proper records. 

Other Problems 

V/e believe there are one or two other problems 
which will soon be ripe for this corra-nittee, but we 
prefer that they ahould be more distinctly revealed through 
the development of larger family rehabilitation work than 
they have been in the limited niffiiber of cases which we investigated. 


Day Care of Children of ^^'orking; llothera 

We come now to the Day Nursery. Here and in 
other cities there are those v/ho affina that there should 
he no institution of this sort. In other words, mothers 
should be looked after ia their own homes and should not 
be obliii'ed to go out to work which compels their use of 
the Nursery. Whatever tendency there may be to cut 
down the v/ork of mothers bearing the v/hole or a large 
part of the responsibility of families, both economic and 
othei-wise, it is not possible to yet conceive of a state 
of affairs where it would not be necessary, for soine mothers 
to v/ork, where indeed it may not be desirable for them 
to have certain occupations outside of their ovm homes. 
We do believe that a Day Nursery is a most necessary 
institution in a city of any size. 

During 1913 the Day Nursery received froii first 
to last 7^ chil-lren for a smaller or larger numler of days. 
Herewith are given certain figures regarding the daily 


We are aware that serious criticism has been 
leveled at the management of the Day Nursery. We believe 
that the Day ITursery has erred in receiving the children 
of woi.'ien not obliged to go out to work. An exaraination 
was ma';e of the records which other societies have of 
certain woi:ien who have used the Day Nursery. Superficially, 
these records indicate that a certain few woi:ien should not 
have been granted the privilege. We say "superficially" 
because v.'e are quite unwilling to describe even generally 
the statements made to us because they were not corroborated 
by sufficient records. 

But in the nature of thinus, the absence of complete 
investigations muet inevitably mean that some are admitted 
who should not be. Now if the money received froi'i the 
mothers paid all expenses, the Nursery could be considered 
to be simply a business concern, where any one might go. 
This is not so, however, and a larger part of the expenses 
must be borne by the community. For that reason, there 
must be discrimination in admissions. It is obvious that 
only the children of mothers out at woi*k should be received, 
and that wives, whose husbands are able-bodied but lazy 
should not ce permitted throiigh the services of the 
Nursery to become the chief bread-winner for their 


V/ith the reorganization of the Associated 
Charities, there should be a definite understanding for 
an exchange of information and for the tactful inquiry 
into the condition of families making use of the "ursery. 

It has been claiiiied that some of those who 
used the Nursery would not make use of it if a.nything 
of this sort were attempted. I do not believe that 
any mother really needs the Nursery who v/ould take a 
stand of tnis sort, and in this I am amply confirmed by 
the experience of many other ITurseries, 

Furthermore, I aiii quite sure that in a city 
of this size and of this character, there are really 
many more v/orking mothers who need its services than 
now take advantage of the Nursery. It is not only a 
necessary institution, but its present accommodations 
should be utilized to a far greater degree than they 
are. This utilization would speedily elimin-te that 
group which wo\ild ouject to any friendly interest in 
their affairs. 

V/hat is the reason for this condition of affairs? 
In the first place, I come straight back to the old cry 
of lack of co-operation and understanding. It is incon- 
ceivable, for instance, that the societies having to do 
with families in their homes, have not run -cross 
some instances vrtitre they might have urged the use of 


the ITursery, even to the point of paying the extra 
carfare where long distances from home to Hursery 
and ITursery to work may have to be considered. 

There are, however, even more fundarnental 
questions regarding the Day llursery which cannot be 
settled until there has been proper co-operation. 
I refer to the question of location. \3 a first 
location, the ITursery has been placed in the center 
of the city so that it might be used by v/o.;ten from any 
part of the city. Now the question may easily come up 
as to whether the "Tursery sho'ald not consider Vi^hether 
a certain section of the city did not contain a greater 
number of wo:nen willing to make use of its facilities 
if it were moved near to them, than now make use of it 
when it is in the center. Furthermore, whether by 
moving nearer to aay such section, its facilities would 
not be fully taxed. At the present time there are 
absolutely no data to be guided by. There will oe 
when the district decisions co.iuTiittees before referred 
to have been in action for six months or a year. 

If such a course was ever deter;r.ined upon, 
it would mean that efforts would have to be made in other 
parts of the city, possibly, to find good coiTunon sense 
V70!:ien living in these neighborlioods to receive a 
limited number of children ii\ their ovm homes. I am 
well aware of the dangers attendant to such a plan. 


There would be ao thing reaching at all up to Day 
ITursery standards. Certainly, however, such informal 
sorts of home nurseries contain less dangers than the 
locking into houses of groups of little children, or 
placing them in the charge, for instance, of a sister 
of ten or eleven, who is not only being filched of 
her rightful educatiovi but is often quite inco-apetent 
to deal with the kinds of emergencies and happenings 
which ma^' cojue into a fa^nily of children during a single 
week or month. 

In closing, I wish to express, as I hope I 
have implied, my great interest in the Day ITursery ^ork 
here and elsewhere. I qui e appreciate the position 
which they h-ive so.aetimes taken in the face of criticism, 
There can be no question of the values in such an 
institution. In the miserable x^olicy of isolation, 
which has beea the raost prominent characteristic of the 
charitable field here, they have fought for their own 
ideals. But they, like others, must carefully watch 
that they do not take false positions whenever in the 
course of the getting-together era which is to come, 
there are presented to them constructive and helpful 
suggestions lookin^^ towards a greater usefulness for 
the Day ITursery itself 



We wish to consider here three special aspects 
of the care of the sick, though, of course, it is easily 
seen that we are still in the field of i^ainily care, but 
we are starting fro^a the medical point of view. 

District ITurse As soj3_i_a_ tion_ 

Excei)t in one table, we have not before 
mentioned the District ITurse Association. It is scarcely 
necessary to linger long upon it now. 

In the first place, as a social worker, I wish 
to compliment it upon having the "best and moBt systematic 
records of aay other of the agencies which are working 
in homes. This is all the more to their credit, for 
one v/ould naturally expect to find the better records 
in other places. These records are, of course, largely 
medical, but certain iiuportant social data often appear. 
It is not, of course, presumed that the nursing agency 
should maintain full social records. 

It is important to note something about the 
sources of requests for visits made to this association. 
V/hile physicians referred 770, and individuals referred 
129, and friends, 28, only 1 was referred by the Poor 
Board, 6 by the Associated Charities, 1 by a dispensary 
and 7 by hospitals. 


Because it has had its own special field of 
work, and has kept out of certain dangerous tendencies, 
aiiiong \'7hich may 'oe noted the danger of 'becoining involved 
in relief apart frora special diet, etc., it has suffered 
less from lack of co-operation than the general social 
agencies. Even at that, those families at the lower 
margin, whom they have visited, have, many of them, 
suffered most severely because of the absence of tha,t 
constructive planning only possible 'vhen a number of 
societies are working in much closer relationship. 

Por the splendid service which it has 
rendered, the association is to be congratulated. In 
the next stage we have every reason to believe that 
it will willingly and generously keep open the lines 
of continuous conimuni cation with the other societies. 

I may state that the very heavy preponderance 
of calls by physicians is in itself one of the best 
certificates of merit which it could present. 


Care of the Tuberculars 

The State Tuberculosis Dispensary reports; 

The activities of the dispensary itself, of 
course, do not fall within the "boundaries of this Survey. 
It is a State agency. Unofficially, however, we wish to 
express our deep appreciation of what appears to us to be 
a very strongly comprehensive work. The presence of the 
dispensary, however, develops certain local probleius which 
heretofore have not been solved at all. We refer to the 
co-operation of local agencies in providing adequate family 
care in those cases where the patient is still living 
at ho;:e, or in properly looking- after the fajiiilies of 
patients who are sent to sanatoriuins. 

The same lack of co-operation is here apparent. 
The State Dispensary is aot authorized to do more than to 
provide medicnl attention and in some cases to give milk 
as a matter of diet. Its staff has even soiuetimes been 
seriously embarrassed in obtaining proper clothing for 
patients going to sanatoriuiiis. As for seeing that a 
family in which tuberculosis exists, is receiving enough 
to prevent the infection of well members of the family. 


or in allaying the fears of a father, for instance, who 
has "been admitted to a sanatorium, and does not k-iow just 
how his faiiiily is going to get on, in dealing with really 
a score of difficult questions which come up after the health 
side ha,s Taeen attended to, there indeed, there is practically 
nothing done, llowhere are the disheartening aspects of the 
present situation so strongly marked as in this field. 
It is perhaps significant that one time when I went to the 
dispensary, the whole staff was busy in the examination 
of a f.ainily of eight, in whicn every one had the disease. 
The experience of other places has aiaply demonstrated that 
many families co.iie to disaster through tuberculosis who 
have kncrn nothing of charitable agencies before. An 
early examination may reveal the possibility of arresting 
the disease in the case of the chief bread-winner in the 
fainily, but the offer of sanatorium care is refused because 
there seems to be no v/ay for the family to get on without 
him and he has not the happy-go-lucky character of many of 
the men who ordinarily come to a charitable office and 
who quite willingly go to a sanatorium without worrying 
very much over how the family will get on because their 
situation is always more or less emergent. The very 
purposes of state-wile disr)ensaries are hampered and 
traversed if the local agencies are not co-operatively 
working in carrying what is really the heavy burden of 
families in which tuberculosis exists. 



There is at present a division of responsilDility, 
30 far as the care of these two classes which really constitute 
one big class, is concerned. 

The Poor Board issues transportation to other 
points for non-residents, and where no other means of 
transportation appears to he possible. 

The Police Department gives temporary shelter 
to homeless men in the Police Stations. 

Eventually, though xiot at this tiine, the 
city may have to consider the desirability of maintaining 
a municipal lodging house in charge of tne Police 
Department, with a work test included. If at the, there is introduction of labor iito the County 
Jail, the city will not an attractive place for 
mere rovers. Of course, this means that otJier cities 
will suffer by their presence, but the great need is 
to awaken all cities to the need of having the srune 
local systems and of initiating state campaigns for the 
establishment of state colonies for the real 'j^'anderers 
and vagrants who are evanescent and cannot be dealt 
with in any hopeful -''ay excepting through co:nbined 
municipal, state and even, in the end, national co-operation. 




V!e already in several parts of this Report 
indicated that it has been the opinion of many that there 
should be a greater concentration of responsibility for 
neglected farailies on the side of public officials. 
We have also tried to show how disastrous a policy of 
this sort would be. 

There are other considerations in connection 
with this which deserve attention. So far as the ex- 
penditure of public money is concerned, each year between 
$275,000 and $300,000 is used in this city. This includes 
public moneys passing through the Poor Board and State 
appropriations to local institutions. It does not include 
the appropriation of about |30.'^00 "to the Pennsylvania 
Oral School for the Deaf, which is distinctly a state-wide 
institution. It does include the maintenance of the State 
Hospital, whicn, of course, receives patients fro.^i adjoining 
territory. It will oe understood that we are only referring 
to, and only including appropriations to, distinctively 
charitable societies. 

V/e have estimated that these charitable societies 
and institutions, including others receiving no State 
appropriations, obtain fro-i private givers, about ^'73>OOQ. 


The larger list includes the following: 

Scranton Poor Board 

Associated Charities and Humane Society 

District Nursing Association 

Scranton Day Nursery 

Salvation Army 

He'brew Charitable Societies 

St. Vincent de Paul Society 

House of the Good Shepherd 

St. Patrick's Orphan Asylum 

St. Joseph's Foundling Home 

Hoiiie for' the Friendless 

Florence Crittenden Home 

State Hospital 

State Tuherculosis Dispensary 

Hahneman Hospital 

TTest Side Hospital 

West Mountain Sanatorium 

Church Societies 

(V/hile returns are not complete, the 
cnurches doing the largest worl-c have 


V.lien 'rve coLie to social activities which are 
outaiie of this particular field, we recognize that 
private expenditures are increased. We recognize that 
during the last few years, there have been extraordinary 
demands in connection with building funds. V/e believe 
that it will be necessary to consider a larger mutual 
co-operation scheme with reference to new, as well as old, 

Before doing so, I desire to call attention to 
the fact that disproportionate attention has been given 
to institutional development as against service development. 
Here I am referring to private giving. There is one 
splendid exception in the District Nursing Society. 
But outside of the nursing side, I would call your attention 
to the fact thcit both public and private expenditures in 
this field have centered around relief. The voluntary 
contributions whicn have been made recently to the 
Associated Charities have been extreiiely small in aiuount, 
witn tne exception of tne occasional Benefits. To whatever 
point we trace back the reasons for this, whether to place 
the blajie upon the society for not doing the co-operative 
work which it should do, or upon the community for not 
giving it support by which it could atte.-apt the task, is 
a matter of siaall moment at the present time. The point of 


suprene iiuportance is that the conununity has paid less 
attention to the fundamental probleras of Family rehabilita- 
tion, while in the main generously contributing to other 
causes. Fow with the hi^^hest admiration of the other 
social and charitable societies and institutions, it would 
have been far better for each one of the.i to have had 
slightly smaller support with the difference going to the 
development of this work, than to have had the present 
situation brought about. It is too late to rectify 
the mistakes of the past. But the error must not go 
on. The present condition demands that in the re- 
organization of the Associated Charities there must 
be a larger support than heretofore for the work from 
year to year. With the tremendously greater efficiency 
which will cOi.^e, the money now spent in the field ivin 
multiply in the values returned. I wish most emphatically 
to state, however, that I do not guarantee that in the 
end there will oe less than the amounts now used required; 
but that the increasing cost of future years will be 
diminished by effective work, is obvious. This might as 
v/ell be faced now. It may as well be faced imiiediat^ly 
as to be put off. We are perfectly sure that you will to it with greater or less effort because every city 
is coi!iing to it whenever a sufficiently strong group 
realize the shortcomings and realize that every possible kind 


of social effort is being crippled by the absence of the 
fundamental Faunily work. 

To return nov; to the other question. We 
have seen that in one most important field there has 
been too little development in the city. When we 
consider just how social movements are carried on, we 
realize how individualistic they are. Wnea anyone 
wants a thing and needs it to a greater or less degree, 
he forthwith goes out and tries to get the cioney for it. 
Without criticisiny any one of the special agencies 
which have recently appealed for building funds, I have 
not the slightest hesitation in sayin,^; that, considering 
tne size of the city, etc., there have not been sufficiently 
long intervals between the appeals. ]?or that reason, 
other forms of social work naturally and justifiably 
requiring increased resources have bee-n handicapped. 
In a nvunber of cities e have suggested a form of 
organization ^'iiicn we will briefly describe. First, 
hov/ever, we would frankly state it is still an experiment 
and not a clear and worked-out project like the Associated 
Charities. It means that there shall be a central 
cojiiiuittee composed of representatives of all of the social 
and charitable agencies in the city, together with a 
small group of disinterested people not associated intimate- 
ly witJi aay one of tne societies, whicn endea'/ors by 
mutual forbearance and understanding to determine 
each year what new appeal or what appeals for large 


increases in contributions should be given priority 
in any ^iven season and what others should be temporarily 
■withdravrn, all with the consent of the particular board 
of directors involved. Sorne very delicate and difficult 
tasks are involved in the working out of a scheine of 
this sort. It requires that the chairman should be the 
kind of leader who has iiuagination enough to see both 
sides of a question down to the very last detail, who 
will see that even justice is given to all presentations 
of needs. In addition and above all things, ne must be 
one who will open the eyes of the representatives of 
different societies to the absolute need of developing 
an unselfishness which i^iii mean a readiness to yield 
if the stronger arguineats are on the other side. 
But in order for them to be considered stronger, it 
means that each representative should gain a far deeper 
iinderstanding of t/ie work of other agencies and so widen 
his intei'est beyond those particular activities in which 
his interest has been centered. 

It will be observed that this is the only 
kind of formal association between the different 
societies which I have recoiiuiiended, with the exception 
of the child-helping committee before referred to. 
So far as the Faiiily work is concerned, co-operation 
there may be and is developed through informal methods 
with the responsibility for its development resting 
with the Associated Ch^rrities. Here is something which 


requires more formal organization and which requires 
definite agreements of boards of directors "before the 
cornrrtittee can be formed. It is T^ossible, of course, 
for the Associated Charities to help in organizing 
such a coi'Hjnittee, in which it will be one organization 
simply. It is possible that before such experimentation 
the way to mutual understanding will be opened up if a 
city conference of social ai^encies was organized to 
which any interested persons could come, and at whose 
meeting problems affecting different kinds of societies 
should be presented and discussed. This conference 
might holi four meetings durin^,- the winter season. 
For the first year at least, I would not have it 
ask any one fror;i outside the city to take part. 
Rather I would have it arranged to have the work of 
different societies, classified in groups, presented 
at successive meetings by interested persons. 

If the questioa of a central coiTimittee of the 
kind indicated does come up, let it be remembered that 
its weapon is not coercion but moral suasion. The 
board of directors of any society can do anything; it 
wills to do within the limits of the powers granted to it 
by its charter. It caxi rebel against any reconuuendation 
to delay a particular appeal. If it cannot be persuaded 
to change its course, it can appeal to the community 


and the central committee canaot prevent its doing so. 
But if the central couTiittee has acted in all fairness 
and can justify its stand, it is bound to have considerable 
influence upon the business coKimunity. If it misuses 
its .iioral power by lack of imagination, narrowness of 
thought or other ..^ore individual reasons, it will not be 
able to cripple a good cause. 



We do not present any extensive investigation 
of institutions. This Survey hns centered around 
associated efforts outside of individual societies. 

Many institutions, however, have outsiie 
questions to consider. So far as the general co-operative 
movement is concerned, their responsi'Dilities as members 
of inHtitution boards are not direct. Tnough it would 
be a desiraole thing and a useful thing for members of 
such boards to serve on decisions coimai ttees, it is not 
absolutely necessary. 

It is advisable that institutions should 
register in the confidential exchange. 

V^e have already made certain recormiiendatinns 
regarding the need of taking up methods of child-placiiTg. 

It may be asked whether it is desirable that 
institutions should request the Associated Charities 
to make investigations of applications for admission. 
J.Iy ans^ver is that it may or may not be. Certainly it 
should make the fullest use of the records of that 
society. Certainly it should give tne society the 
advantage of its ovn investigation. It might be 
desirable for it to test its own methods of investigation 
by asking the Associated Charities to make full reports 
upon a few cases. It is un^vise, however, for the 


Associated Charities to oeco:!ie the center through 
which all investigations are made. In the case of 
individual institutioas and upon the request of such 
institutions, there may be working agreements for 
undertaking this responsibility, dependent upon whether 
it has facilities for doing its primary work. 

When it coines to the central coioraittee last 
referred to, each institution shonld be represented 
if it is making any appeal for private contributions. 



With reference to the faiailies into whose 
conditions we specifically inquired, we have arranged for 
the formation of a small group of volunteers who will 
attempt to work out soine of the difficulties involved 
until the time coraes for a larger development of volunteer 

With reference to the whole report we would 
reco.iffiiend that it be referred to a small corrjnittee: 

(1) To consider and discuss the report, and to 

approve or change the recommendations therein 

(2) To either refer hack its final recoroinendati-n 

to a meeting of this sort or to he instructed 
to proceed, in consultation with the boards of the 
different societies involved, to carry out as far 
as possible these final recon-imendations.